Permaculture Farm: A Food Forest Regeneration

Permaculture is a sustainable way to live human in harmony with nature following ecological principles that found in nature. Permaculture is applicable in almost every living area. It's well known in supplying sustainable food production. The permaculture farm is a way to grow fruits, vegetables and various other edible vegetation of forest origin. It is an old idea but getting more attraction in this modern era. Farming forest food in Garden and orchards in a well-managed way gives nice production. In wild these plants differ a lot and may not be easily available and difficult to harvest. These forest plants take sometimes to adapt to a new environment, once they do they maintain themselves and adapted they provide much more food than the traditional gardens.
Permaculture focused on smart work, not harder, reduce waste, control pollution, water waste & energy waste. Permaculture is best for the world with constrained energy and natural resources. Permaculture emphasis on perennial crops after a favorable environment obtained with plantation of starter plant. Permaculture ethics includes earth care with lots of resources for the dependent people for making their living, people care to the environment that people depend on and fair share of resources of Earth for personal consumptions equitable.
Permaculture Farm: A Food Forest Regeneration--Permaculture farm
Permaculture Farm: Food Forest

How to set up Permaculture Farming?

Instead of immediately buy fruit trees and plant them, First, of edaphic factors need to be considered ie. soil properties like texture, nutrient availability, porosity, water holding capacity, etc. along with a lot of knowledge about which species best fitted the reason and patience for long term projects. The larger the area the better for forest plant. The main concern should be given to develop good nutrient soil. When the plant gets good nutrient soil to grow then it grows vigorously.  Nature develop nutrient through the dead leaves from trees that slowly composting and turning into dirt. In orchards, traditionally dead leaves are frequently removed and use fertilizers instead. To create a sustainable permaculture farm, the cultivation environment should similar to that of nature. For providing a natural environment the land is heavily mulch and give enough time to decompose.
When the soil is well composted and watered then it is ready to plant the first plant to permaculture farm. The first plant should be fast and easy to grow that means it's hardy before investing in sophisticated and highly sensitive plants or trees. Let the plant grows vigorously like a weed for months and years that will help to make the soil more hospitable to other following plants growing in the land in the future. Creating better microclimate, blocking hard winds and moderating temperature are the other additional function of starter plants.
Eventually, forest fruit starts to produce a yield in a permaculture farm. Gradually you can grow larger fruit trees. The fruit tree should be capable of naturally grown in areas of a permaculture farm. Special care should be provided to the fruit trees during establishing years as the areas my not cent percent suitable for the plant and but after a year, the soil becomes better and the tree becomes stronger and well established thus, can grow on its own. No need to care that much in later years.
The trees give yields rest of the years than different kind of plants like small trees, bushes, small plants and herbs can be grown in same environment under food forest in layers. Adding up the layers the production of permaculture farm increase geometrically in comparision with the food grown in traditional way. It's appears like a forest rather than a orchard with full of valuable species. After year or two the annual or biannual plant grown in the beginning can be removed. Building a food forest is time-consuming but when completed it's a continuous source of nutritious food best quality. This connects people to nature.

Software Freedom Day 2019, NOSK NCIT

Software Freedom Day, SFD is an annual worldwide event celebration of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS). It is organised to increasing awareness of Free Software and its virtues, and encouraging its use. SFD was established in 2004 and was first observed on 28 August of that year. Since 2006 Software Freedom Day has been held on the Every Third Saturday of September.

Nepal Open Source Klub, NOSK

NOSK, also Nepal Open Source Klub, has been around from 2008, and is initiated by the free and open source enthusiasts at Nepal College of Information Technology (NCIT). NOSK organizes and facilitates many of the technical activities that are held at college, and has been organizing "Software Freedom Day (SFD)" in Nepal
This year, the SFD falls on September 21. NOSK was listed as one of the most deserving teams in 2010 and 2016 event, and we aren't settling there. As we've always been, we're committed to making this year's event larger and useful than ever before and win over our past self. The event's success can largely be attributed to the helping hands, college and sponsors, whose support has been instrumental in helping our participants during the event.
Software Freedom Day 2019, NOSk NCIT Join Us Banner
Learn more NOSK NCIT.

Event Details

Software Freedom Day is the worldwide event celebrated by all the Open Source enthusiasts. Every year it is celebrated on third Saturday of September. This year Nepal Open Source Klub, NOSK is going to celebrate on the 21st of September. The event includes both technical as well as non-technical events most of them are partially or fully devoted to Open Source promotion.

Free entrance for everyone:).
Date: 21st September 2019 (२०७६ - असोज - ४)
Time: 10 AM Onwards
Venue: Nepal College of Information Technology, Balkumari, Lalitpur.

Events and Timing
  1. Introduction to Open Source 10:00–11:00
  2. Workshops 11:00–16:00
    1. Professional Project Management using GitHub 11:00–16:00
    2. Mobile App Development using Flutter 11:00–16:00
  3. TechTalks
    1. Cyber Security and Open Source (Speaker: Er. Kumar Pudasaini) 11:00–12:00
    2. Quantam Computing: The Present and the Future (Speaker: Prof. Dr. Sashidhar Ram Joshi) 12:30–13:30
    3. TensorFlow (Speaker: Er. Dipesh Das) 14:00–15:00
  4. NOSKode 3.0 10:00–16:00
  5. Hackathon (Debian Repository Server) 10:00–16:00
  6. Distro Demo (Ubuntu, Manjaro, Kali, Fedora and Debian) 10:00–16:00
  7. Non-Technical Events (Photo Booth, Gaming such as Tower of Hanoi, Dart), 3D Movie Show, and Food Stalls) 10:00–16:00


During 1980s and before, Source code for the software were free and can be user by any individuals, Business models on those days were on Hardware. Software was freely provided by companies with their hardware machine. In late 1970s and early 1980s, computer manufacturer starts to provide only the binary copy of their software, providing users no right to edit and modify not ever to understand how it works. In the mean time some companies starts selling the software only. Business based on hardware are shifted to software by then.

In 1983, Richard Stallman, announced the GNU project, saying that he had become frustrated with the effects of the change in culture of the computer industry and its users. Software development for the GNU operating system began in January 1984, and the Free Software Foundation (FSF) was founded in October 1985.


The GNU Project is a free-software, mass-collaboration project, first announced on September 27, 1983 aim is to give computer users freedom and control in their use of their computers and computing devices, by collaboratively developing and providing software that is based on the following freedom rights:

  1. users are free to run the software
  2. share it (copy, distribute)
  3. study it
  4. modify it.
GNU software guarantees these freedom-rights legally (via its license), and is therefore free software; the use of the word “free” always being taken to refer to freedom. GNU is a recursive acronym meaning “GNU’s not Unix”). Richard Stallman defines free software as a matter of liberty, not price.


Free and open-source software is a computer software which are free (in term of freedom) software and Open source (ie.  Source code is openly shared so that people are encouraged to voluntarily improve the design / performance  of the software.) Software. Anyone is freely licensed to use, copy, study, and change the software in any way. The main benefits of Free and opensource software can me listed as, Decreasing software cost, increasing security and stability, protecting privacy and giving users more control. FOSS are those software which are controlled by user, not user controlling software.

Why SFD?

Our goal in this celebration is to educate the worldwide public about the benefits of using high quality FOSS in education, in government, at home, and in business — in short, everywhere!
Objectives of SFD:
  • To celebrate software freedom and the people behind it
  • To foster a general understanding of software freedom, and encourage adoption of free software and open standards
  • To create more equal access to opportunities through the use of participatory technologies
  • To promote constructive dialogue on responsibilities and rights in the information society
Learn more Software Freedom Day.


Software Freedom Day, SFD is an annual worldwide event celebration of FOSS. NOSK is going to celebrate on the 21st of September. Free software as a matter of liberty, not price. This global event aims to educate the public about the benefits of using FOSS at home, school, government, virtually everywhere. 

B.Sc. Forestry Entrance Online Form - 2076

B.Sc. Forestry Entrance Online Form - 2076
IOF has recently published its official notice on 17th of Bhadra, 2076 about admission related Notice on B.Sc. Forestry program at IOF Campuses. The Entrance Exam will be held on 16th of Kartik, 2076. The Entrance Exam is for the Academic session 2076/080. Those examiner appears in this entrance and gets succeed would be part of IOF soon in future. Examiners should be eligible for the B.Sc. Forestry program to appear in this entrance exam. Here, I would cover basic knowledge or ideas an applicant should have before applying for entrance online.

  1. Anyone interested can apply for entrance online through this link:
  2. The applicant can fill up the application form for the entrance examination in between 18th of Bhadra, 2076 to 8th of Kartik,2076 in normal charge while up to 15th of Kartik on the expense of double charge.
  3. The application fee would cost NRs. 2500/- which need to be deposited prior to filling up the application form on the account name: Institute of Forestry, Account number: 10200100579674000001 in Nepal Bank Limited, PrithviChowk, Pokhara.
  4. The eligible candidate for the entrance exam are those who have completed I.Sc or Forestry Diploma, equivalent or +2 Science or A level Science in which studied Math and Biology of  Full Marks 100/100 and at least obtained C Grade on both (Theory + Practical) in every subject 40%
For details about how to fill up the IOF B.Sc. Forestry Entrance Exam form see: How to apply for Entrance Exam Form for IOF, B.Sc. Forestry Online?

IOF Admission Reserve sit (Kota) Scheme

In General sits, IOF, Pokhara Campus hold 36 and IOF, Heatauda Campus holds 27 students.
Based on the amount the student had to study B.Sc. Forestry, the sits are General (Scholarship) and Capitation (Full Pay).
Top examiners in the respective college would enjoy General sit (Include only Tuition fee discount) based on following General and Reserve sit (Kota);

General Sit
Pokhara Campus
Hetauda Campus
Rural Area

In Capitation sits, Pokhara Campus hold 44 and IOF, Heatuda Campus holds 53 students Examiners who obtained marks below general sit would get admission based on following Kota Scheme;

Capitation Sit
Pokhara Campus
Hetauda Campus
Rural Area

Adding both General and Capitation sits on both campus come up with 80 students in each campuses. The capacity of Kathmandu Forestry College to intake students for B.Sc. Forestry is 50.

Required document to fill up entrance form of B.Sc. Forestry.

  1. Amount Deposited Bank Voucher (A/c name, no., Bank Branch and Amount see above).
  2. Scanned copy of mark sheet from your respective education institution as mention earlier.
  3. Applicant photo and signature in scanned form.
Applicant should select the campus s/he interrelated to study while filling up the form.
Applying for a general sit of respective college won't cost any additional charge.
While filling for Kota of general sit (other than general) should mention Kota of general sit you like to include yourself in addition to the selection of college and bank voucher of NRs. 100 for each Kota you applying for and necessary document to show you are an eligible candidate for the Kota. 
While filling the form for General Capitation Sit you need to have bank deposit voucher of NRs. 300/- along with campus you interested to study.
For those applicants who want to apply on reserves sits of Capitation, in addition, to choose campus you applying for and also need to show bank deposit voucher of NRs. 100/- for each if applied for more than 3 reserves sits.
Required certified documents from the respective authorized organization should be submitted after the entrance exam result to enjoy the reserve sit to those particular students.s

How to apply for Entrance Exam Form for IOF, B.Sc. Forestry Online?

Forestry is one of the subjects with the scope of a prosperous future and career. Recently, IOF, Dean's office has opened examination form for B.Sc. Forestry to be held at 16th of Kartik, 2076.

To be eligible for the entrance examination, one has to complete I.Sc. Forestry or Forestry Diploma, equivalent or +2 Science or A-Level Science in which one studied study Math and Biology of the Full Mark 100/100 and at least obtained C Grade or both (Theory + Practical) in every subject or 40% or CGPA 2.

The application fee is NRs. 2500/- which need to be deposited prior to filling up the application form on the account name: Institute of Forestry, Account number 19200100579674000001 in Nepal Bank Limited, Prithvichowk, Pokhara.

  1. First of all the applicant should enter the following link: given to your browser tab or click on the link given here
  2. Now, you would able to see three different sections. Click on “Start Registration” other options come into use after filling up the application form i.e. to know the status of registration and to download Admit Card for Entrance Exam after the deadline to fill up the B.Sc. Forestry Entrance Examination Form. Also, don’t forget to see the notice (to get detail about more related to Entrance Exam rules) just below three sections which appear in slight scrolling down.
  3. How to apply for entrance exam form for IOF, BSC. Forestry online -- Start Registration
    Start Registration for IOF, B.Sc. Entrance Exam Form Online

3. Clicking on “Start Registration” would lead you to steps to complete your entrance exam form. In the First Step, you just need to read thoroughly line by line without skipping a word as it included important information regarding the requirements before filling of the form afterward. The basic things you have to do prior to sit for filling up the entry form is to deposit NRs. 2500/- as application fee in Nepal Bank Limited of Prithvichowk in Account Name: Institute of Forestry and account no. 19200100579674000001.

How to apply for Entrance Exam Form for IOF, B.Sc. Forestry Online?-- Required Documents
Documents required to fill up IOF, B.Sc. Forestry Entrance Form.

4.    In step two, you have to fill your basic details (i.e. Mobile no., Date of Birth in Bikram Sambhat (B.S.) and Citizenship No.) should be given accurately. Then, click on Next Button.
How to apply for Entrance Exam Form for IOF, B.Sc. Forestry Online?-- Fill basic Details
Fill your basic Details
4.  Fill up your Personal Details.

Personal Details Fill up

Finally, go to Submit Registration to complete the steps.

"NEXT" NCIT Expo On Technology 2019

NEXT is a 3-day event organized by Nepal College of Information Technology - NCIT, which is going to be held on July 18th, 19th and 20th, 2019 (Shrawan 2nd, 3rd and 4th 2076). Some salient feature of NEXT event is Project Exhibition, Logic Battle, Rapid Coding Tournament, Seminars on hot topics and much more. The prize for competitions rang from 3,000 NPR to 20,000 NPR. NEXT is going to be the first and the biggest ever technological fest in the history of NCIT. Third-year students of this college are actively involved in succeeding this event.

Nepal College of Information Technology

Nepal College of Information Technology (NCIT) was established in 2001 AD and is located at Balkumari, Lalitpur. NCIT runs Pokhara University-affiliated Bachelor's and Master's programs - BE, BCA, ME, MSC and MCIS. The Engineering degree from NCIT is approved by Nepal Engineering Council. NCIT is one of the top colleges in Technology in Nepal. The College is also an authorized training partner of CISCO, Red Hat, and Microsoft.

Need for NEXT

NCIT being one of the top technical colleges in Nepal has not organized any remarkable events. Also Every year the third Saturday of September, (Nepal Open Source Klub) NOSK used to organize a day event called Software Freedom Day (SFD). NOSK is a group of students who believe in open source. This event was first organized in 2004, 28th August. Since 2006 Software Freedom Day has been held on the third Saturday of September. But this event was not organized in 2018. Check Software Freedom Day 2017, NOSK NCIT. SFD is an international event organized worldwide, ie. not the event of college itself. Which leads to organize an event within the college and here is NEXT.

NCIT Expo On Technology 2019

The technical events included in this 3-day event are :
  • Hackathon
  • Workcamp
  • Tech talks
  • Seminar
  • Programming Competition
  • Rapid code tournament
  • Robo Racing
  • Robo Soccer
  • Project Exhibition
  • Walk-In Interview
  • Open Source Promotion

Participants who can get benefited from this event include:
  • Graduate and Undergraduate students from various universities
  • Engineers and engineering students
  • IT students
  • Consultants
  • General Public
  • Technical Professionals
  • Technical Organizations
  • Industries

Objectives and Goals of this Event

The organizing committee concludes that
Students become active participants in the learning process not only through the consumption of content but through critical thinking and problem solving by creating own content.
Thus this event aims to provide students a platform to demonstrate their talent, connect with other similar developers and students, provide new learning environment via challenging themselves, meet new people and learn more about the diverse fields.


Seminars on different hot topics affecting engineers and technicians across the globe are through the day in all 3 days. The seminars are from Cyber Security and Ethical Hacking to Entrepreneurship and start-up, from AI and Big Data to Blockchain technology and Cloud and fog computing to 5G Technology. Time Schedule of the seminar:
Topic Date Time
Cybersecurity & Ethical hacking. (Pros and Cons) 2076/04/02 11:00 to 11:45
TBM tunneling First practice in case of Bheri-Babai Nepal. 2076/04/02 11:00 to 11:45
Entrepreneurship, Start-up Ideas, and Leadership Development. 2076/04/02 12:30 to 1: 15
5G Technology. 2076/04/03 11:00 to 11:45
WISTEM. 2076/04/03 12:30 to 1: 15
Digital Marketing. 2076/04/04 11:00 to 11:45
AI and Big Data. 2076/04/02 12:30 to 1: 15
Share market and analysis. 2076/04/02 2:00 to 2:45
Metro-rail and Mono-rail in Kathmandu city. 2076/04/03 11:00 to 11:45
Cloud and fog computing. 2076/04/03 12:30 to 1: 15
Concept and challenges in Nijgadh airport/ HSETG engineering 2076/04/04 11:00 to 11:45
Cryptocurrency and Blockchain technology 2076/04/03 2:00 to 2:45


Tech talks are another important part of the event that hosts a platform for technology-based topics. Tech talk welcomes all distinguished academics to share their creative and innovative technologies. Schedule for TechTalks:
Topic Date Time
Latex 2076/04/02 10:45 to 11:45
Physical Pentest 2076/04/03 10:45 to 11:45
Sensors Interfacing 2076/04/02 12:15 to 1:15
Talk Program in Quality control at construction. 2076/04/03 12:15 to 1:15
React and Node JS. 2076/04/03 2:00 to 3:00
Talk program on Bio-Engineering 2076/04/04 2:00 to 3:00
Full Stack Development. 2076/04/02 10:45 to 11:45


Game competition is also another interesting part of this event included games are:
  • PUBG
  • DOTA 2
  • FIFA 19
  • CS: GO

Competition and Pricing

There are different competitions and pricing schema.
Competition Prize Registration
Project Exhibition The winning team of any category will be awarded cash prize Rs.10,000
Best Presentation : Rs.5000
Best Idea: Rs.5000
Young innovative idea for intermediate(+2) students : Rs.5000
People Choice Award: Rs.5000
Registration fee: Rs.2000
Deadline: 30th Asadh, 2076
Logic Battle 1st prize: Rs.9000
2nd prize: Rs.4500
[Certificates will be given to 4 groups]
Date: 3rd of Shrawn
Time 10:00 am
No. of members: 1 to 3 per group
Duration: 3-4 hrs
Registration Deadline: 25th of Ashad
Form charge: Rs. 300 per group
Rapid Coding Tournament 1st prize: Rs.6000
2nd prize: Rs.3000
[Certificates will be given to 4 groups]
Date: 2nd of Shrawn
Time 10:00 am
No. of members: 2
Duration: 5-6 hrs
Registration Deadline: 25th of Ashad
Form charge: Rs. 200 per group
Hackathon Winner 20,000
First runner up 10,000
Best idea 3,000
Best Presentation 3,000
Start time:8:00 am (2nd of Shrawan)
End time : 12:30 pm (4th of Shrawan)
No. of members:2 to  4
Event Duration: 23 hrs.
Registration charge: Rs. 2000 per team
Hardware Project Demonstration Winner: Rs.10,000
First runner up Rs.5000
Registration: Rs. 2000 Deadline: Ashad 28, 2076
Entry Fee: Rs.250 per person.
FIFA 19:
Entry Fee: Rs. 500 per person.
3RD PRIZE: 5000
Entry Fee:500 per person/ 2500 pre Team
3RD PRIZE: 5000
Entry Fee:500 per person/ 2500 pre Team


NEXT is a 3-day event organized by Nepal College of Information Technology - NCIT. This event is the first and the biggest ever technological fest in the history of NCIT. The event includes Tech talks and Seminar on hot topics including AI, blockchain, cloud computing and more. This event involves the active participation of students from more than 37 affiliated colleges of Pokhara University, +2 colleges within the valley and other engineering colleges.

Note: Some Statistics included here may be changed in the future, we try to keep the information up to date.
Learn more NEXT 2019

Scholarship in Nepal for Bachelor

Nepal is a developing country, many of the people are below the poverty level, Thus Scholarships are the source for the students to make a better career. In Nepal, different educational institutes provide scholarship to support the candidates and reach their goals. Scholarships for a different level of education are available but here we will look about Scholarship in Nepal for Bachelor level.
Fee for education for higher studies is increasing day by day. It could not be possible for some people to get higher education without the support of the Government or any other form of financial aid. Today, here we try to list out all the scholarships available for Bachelor program within Nepal.

Scholarships for Engineering

Engineering is one of the popular bachelor programs in Nepal. Scope of engineering is increasing with the different development activities going on within Nepal. With the increase of popularity and demand for Engineering, there are various universities providing engineering program in Nepal.

IOF Tribhuvan University

Engineering Program of Tribhuvan University is under Institute of Engineering (IOE). There are different no. of seats for different Engineering Program. To apply for IOE Engineering Scholarship you need to Fill up the IOE Entrance Application. The entrance exam will be the same for Paying and Regular (Scholarship) Candidates.

Program Scholarship Seats
Civil 192
Architecture 48
Electrical 48
Electronics and Communication 60
Mechanical 60
Computer 48
Agriculture 12
Industrial 12
Geomatics 24

Pokhara University

Pokhara University provides Scholarship for the different Engineering program. Pokhara University provides scholarships to 10 percent of approved quota of students in affiliated Colleges and 20 percent in constituent schools. Scholarship on Pokhara University. Here are List of Programs and Scholarships. Unlike IOF, there is a separate exam for Scholarship and paying program.

S.N.ProgramScholarship Quota

Kathmandu University

KU provides various scholarships to students. There are different scholarship program for different programs. For Engineering for every 30 fee-paying students, ONE student will be admitted on a full or partial scholarship. The scholarship is provided for first-year and to continue getting the scholarship students should maintain a minimum total of 3.0 GPA. Also, there is KU Load Scholarship.

Purbanchal University

Purbanchal University provide scholarship just as Pokhara university. Total of 10% seats are reserved for scholarship students. The selection process of Scholarship is 5% for Open candidates and 5% for reserved candidates.

Scholarship for Management

For Tribhuvan University Every campus/college can admit 32 students among them 2 students should be provided with 50% scholarship. The selection should be based on the merit list.
For Pokhara University it's clear just as Engineering program, 10 percent of approved quota of students in affiliated Colleges and 20 percent in constituent schools.
S.N.ProgramScholarship Quota

Scholarship for Health Science

Pokhara University provides a Scholarship program for the Health Science program. Here is the quota distribution.
S.N.ProgramScholarship Quota
1B Pharm19
2B Sc MLT19
Institute of Medicine (IOM) provides about 45 MBBS, 10 BSc.Nursing scholarship in paramedical courses in Nepal. General Category: 36 seats Underprivileged Group Scholarships (Reserved): 9 Seats
Ministry of Education (MOE) provides about 250 MBBS Scholarships (55% General and 45% Reserved quota) and about 40 BDS (55% General and 45% Reserved quota) in different Medical and Dental colleges in Nepal and abroad.
BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) provided about 29 MBBS scholarships. For BDS program Scholarship seats are about 8.
Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) provided about 10 MBBS Full Scholarships and 16 partial Scholarships.

Scholarship for Humanities

Pokhara University Provides scholarship for Bachelor of Development Studies (BDEVS) = 14 and for Bachelor of English & Communication Studies (BECS) = 9 Which makes total of 23 seats.
This much? We are sorry we could not find more information, when we get we will update.

Scholarship for Other Program

Pokhara University provides scholarship on every program taught on the university. Pokhara university provides 61 programs (including masters and PhD.) and a total of 1111 scholarship every academic year.

Other Scholarship in Nepal

Indian Embassy, Bangladesh Embassy, Japanese Embassy and many other provides scholarship in Nepal and aboard. Ministry of Education often publish Notices on Scholarship follow this link to go to the scholarship notice page


Education is being expensive day by day. Also there are numbers of scholarship available to support people who cannot pay by themselves. Here we list out some of the scholarship within Nepal. We know there are lot more still missed in this list. While searching for scholarship there are no information even on the official sites.
We spent the entire day to search and compile this list. If you are aware of some other scholarship please inform us. Here is Scholarship in Nepal for Bachelor we will prepare a list of other levels too. Have a good day.

Ultimate Guide on How to Register .np Domain

.np Domain registration is free of cost for citizens of Nepal and Businesses with in Nepal. .np Domain is a ccTLD, country-code Top Level Domain. With .np domain we can register,,,, and a lot more Domain Extensions. Here is the Ultimate Guide on How to Register .np Domain is open for registration, ie. Any Entity eligible for .np domain can select the where as is for educational institutions and for organizations. And Criteria are applied for most of the other domains extensions.

What is .np Domain

.np domain is a country-code Top-Level Domain for Nepal. A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code. All ASCII ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs.
The domain name is a unique identity in the World Wide Web. Once a domain name is registered by a user s/he has full control over that domain until it expires. Well, there is no expiry date for .np domain yet. Every domain name should be associated with an IP to locate the resource that is to be displayed on the web page. We need a DNS manager to point a domain to IP.

Requirement for .np Domain Registration

Here is a list of required docs for domain .np domain registration:
  • For Personal
    1. Scan Copy of Citizenship Card / Driving License
    2. An application letter
  • For Businesses
    1. Scan Copy of Company registration certificate
    2. An Application must be written in the official Cover Letter
This guide is for Personal Domain registration. Before Starting this guide. Here is some requirement:
  • Scan copy of Citizenship card
  • Email for Creating an account on DNS manager and Domain Registrar

Start Domain Registration

First Visit and create Account

Enter your Full name, your email set a password and confirm it. We need this username and password so if necessary write it down.
Also, visit and Create your account in Godaddy. Godaddy Provide DNS management tool for free. Learn about DNS management and Zone Records

You may need to add your mobile no. and verify your email address before further process. Check your Email account if there is any mail from np domain or GoDaddy and follow the instruction if any.
Now login to and in the Apply new domain section, Search the domain name you want to register and click on Search. If the domain had already taken try a different name and different extensions, from the drop-down. For personal domain you can have,,

Click on register now
Now, we need a Name Server. With Name Server, your domain will be pointed to a DNS manager and you can manage other Zone records from there. So now login to Godaddy and follow Enter your Domain name. Now you will get Two Name server. Use these name server in the Domain registration page. Fill other details about you and click save and continue

Now In the Attach required documents Select Registration/Citizenship card from DropDown. Then click on Choose File, Then Select your scanned copy of Citizenship and Click on Save Image. Remember it should be less than 800 KB. For cover letter follow Np Domain Registration Cover Letter Generator. Upload the cover letter and select Save Image. Then, Click on Register Domain.

Domain request Received

Now your Domain is Registered. It needs to be approved, It would take some days. Insufficient information may cause a delay in request processing. Make sure it's according to the Terms and Conditions provided. If you follow all the processes. All required docs are provided and is under TOC.

To continue your Domain usages, and following different guide on the internet. If you are asked to modify some DNS record you can login to Godaddy and modify your DNS records. If you are asked to modify NS records you can still do this from Godaddy DNS.


We register .np Domain. .np Domain is a ccTLD. We user DNS management tool so that we can point to different domain according to our need without modifying the NS record, which would take more than a day. It would take some days for the domain to get approved and registered fully. Finally, your .np Domain is registered.

How Community Forest Enterprise can function effectively?

How Community Forest Enterprise can function effectively?
CFEs is one of the meaningful pathways for the alleviation of poverty of forest-dependent communities utilizing forest products from the community forest, local creativity, and entrepreneurship through the activities of community people. Forest resources have the potential to create economic opportunities at the local level and to strengthen resource conservation. The policy and attention are given to focus this activity utilizing forest products from the community forest. Many reformations have been made in the last few decades but still, there are lots of to reform for the betterment of the users involving in the enterprises in the community forest. Many new problems are arising with the change of market structure and demand and development of advanced technology. To overcome the competition faced by the enterprises with the development of advanced technology user also need to familiar to catch up the trend and need to reduce production cost to compete with other reveal products in the market.  Thus, from the study of three CFEs, it was found that some changes are needed to make based on the barrier each of the enterprises is facing.
Each enterprise has its own constraints and limitations that may due to geography, remoteness, traditional technology, locally inappropriate managerial procedure, and many more.

Functional on Annual Basis

The studied enterprises all were found to be operated seasonally that means they can’t run throughout the year. So, the dependent community can’t fully dependent on these enterprises. Thus, people get less interested in involving in enterprises in this sense. All the member involve have their own household works and they have to do all and look after their other economical sources to make their living. So, first of all, the enterprise should be made that operate the whole year. For that support should be provided by the authorized agency to collect raw materials required for the whole year or add up another diverse type of enterprise product to reduce dependency on single raw materials available in single season. This help to inspire locals and involve with full comfort. Among these enterprises, users found in allo enterprise keep them involved in allo thread weaving comparatively more time compare to other, in Lapsi enterprise they involve during available of lapsi that hardly last for four months and that only some days while in bel enterprise user involve during harvesting, processing, filling and packing of the final product. 

Facilities of the market for local products 

Availability of the market should be insured by any means. Encouraging locals and poor community in forest-based enterprises but not ensuring the market for the local production was the challenges faced by the members involved in it. No any clear provision to buy qualitative enterprise produce by the enterprises discourage enterprises to produce products in large quantity. Although there is market for these products, they are not well managed. The competition between similar products, distribution mechanisms of the products and lack of knowledge to the consumers the quality products creating troubles for local products. So, all the works from taking responsibility to buy quality enterprise product and promote and distribution responsibility should be done by an authorized agency so that it really contributes to the poor who involve in the enterprises after selling out their goods to market. The policies that encourage the use of local products, promotion, make aware the benefits of the goods, distribution, and knowledge to identify the original good should be provided and take responsibility.

Initiative in the establishment of forest-based enterprises in community forest.

The incentive to the user involving in the enterprises is required most to increase people participation of people in the enterprise's activities that helped to uplift their socio-economic condition. Since, a forest-based enterprise in community forest is targeted to socially and economically backward poor communities thus, to bring up the government should provide some sorts of incentives in the establishment of the enterprise so that they can make their living from the enterprises. During the establishment phase, it requires a large sum of investment for the economically weak communities. Government officials should take their initiative for establishing enterprise in the backward communities to overcome their troubles through providing them a sustainable source for making their living.

Training and educate users in managerial and enterprise processing technique

The general population in the rural area are unaware of managerial and other various techniques requires to operate the enterprises. Thus, they need to train first and give them lots of information and knowledge about the ways how people can take benefits, the responsibility they need to fulfill, the contribution they can make to improve enterprise activities in more competitive and effective ways. The necessary guide should be given and experience sharing should be encouraged thus, new members involving in the enterprise would be aware of how to do processing, marketing, recording transactions and supports, coordinating with other agencies, etc.

Use of advanced technology

The 21st Century markets are always competitive either that is due to similar products produce or substitutional products available in the market and are available in low price. The product price is low when their production cost is reduced. When the enterprise products are produced in less amount the production cost per each quantity is higher so, increasing no. of enterprise would help to reduce expenses made on each of the enterprises. Traditional methods of harvesting, transporting, processing and packing in each step if advanced technology is used then that would be cheaper in long run for comparatively larger enterprises.

Bel (Aegle marmelos) Enterprise in Tanahun Nepal

Mountain Tanahun Community Bel and Fruit Processing Enterprise is the Enterprise established focusing production and processing juice of Bel (Aegle marmelos) in Myagde Rural Municipality - 2, Jamunae (previously on Jamunae V.D.C. - 4). This enterprise operated in the participation of locals from six community forestry. This enterprise was established in 2071 B.S. This enterprise was registered in Home and Small Scale Bussiness Office Tanahun with registration number 3994 in Fiscal Year 2070/071. This enterprise is awarded the fourth prize of amount 5,000/- in National Exhibition - 2073.
Bel (Aegle marmelos) Enterprise in Tanahun Nepal-- Hoarding Board
Mountain Tanahun Community Bel and Fruit Processing Enterprise

Community Forest Involved

The contribution made by six community forests in support and collaboration of USAID, WWF, Care Nepal and FECOFUN for the establishment of the enterprise is a sample for the community forest enterprise around the country. The partner community forest of this enterprise are listed below:

  1. Shiddha Batasan Community Forest
  2. Umachowk Community Forest
  3. Jyan Tyang Community Forest
  4. Vhir Pani Community Forest
  5. Varchayang Community Forest
  6. Posheli Community Forest

This enterprise now produces the products beside Bel juice other enterprise products are Ginger juice and Lapshi Madha. This enterprise directly creates employment for seven people and indirectly involvement is higher up to 50-60 during harvesting seasons of Bel fruits Baisakh to Shrawan (April - July). This enterprise is utilizing wasting Bel-fruit for the production of Bel-juice and take a commercial shape. This product is new to the market as it is the new production and required skilled accordingly with required training also identifying its market was challenging factors during establishment.

Processes of Bel Juice Production

  1. Collection and Storage of Bel
  2. Grading of Fruit
  3. Cutting
  4. Extraction of pulp
  5. Mixing and Grinding pulp in boiled Water
  6. Filtration of concentrated juice
  7. Preservation and storage in airtight jars
  8. Packing and delivery to market.

Why and How Bel Juice Production and Processing Enterprise Established?

With the growth of population and increasing, urbanization and change in lifestyle create the use of various chemically contaminated products and consumes food poisoning chemical in an unnecessary amount that makes felt the importance of organic products without harmful chemical contamination. Thus, in recent years, various natural fruits have come up in priorities and people choice. Considering these all community forests interested in investing in Bel juice production and processing enterprise in support with the partner organization.

Problems faced by Bel Enterprise

  • Establishment of forest-based enterprise in community forest has its own difficulties. 
  • In addition to that, this is the enterprise operated by six community forests thus, gathering all those in a single platform is the first challenge. However, it's able to bring them all in a place. 
  • Following all these the additional problems is no initiative from the government, no discounts for community-based forest enterprise in Tax Policy.  
  • Especially, to check out the food quality of Bel Juice and other products they have to sent sample to the far distance for this organization and around the products need to be sent to Bhairawa.
  • Transportation of Bel juice or liquids has its problems. 
  • Fuel problem during enterprise production.
  • No permanency of the workers creates additional problems. 
  • Investment of money from all the groups together has a problem.

These problems can be solved with the solutions mention below:

  • The representative from every community forest has solved some problem however, the regular participation can't be insured due to far distance. This can be regularized with particular time schedule preparation for the organization regular gathering.
  • Policy for the operation of the forest-based enterprise and Tax Policy should be revised for the easiness of enterprise.
  • Checking food quality facility should be available either in district level or Province level so that time consuming during food quality check would be reduced significantly and adds easiness. Damauli or Pokhara would be in a convenient distance.
  • Incentives should be given for the transportation of liquids containers.
  • Electrification of the fueling system would help to reduce fuel problems.
  • Workers need to be ensured about their living from a significant amount of earning. 
  • A mechanism should be made to invest income in the community-based forest enterprise.

Trek to Pathivara

Trek to Pathivara is basically known as Limbu culture trek as well as religious trek.
Starting all way from Phunglingtar headquarter of Taplejung you can complete it just in one day or more days as you wish. After around couple of hour jeep ride passing through Suketar airport, Gupte, Chhat Dunga and Bhalu goude we can reach the place named Kafle Pati (2795m.). To challenge the cold weather people there to serve you hot tea and some breakfast as you wished but you need to pay. 4-5 tea shops including hotels are always to serve you with an adjoined well managed public toilet. Usually, people start their trek all way from here, Kafle Pati.
Trek to Pathivara -- Pathivara Devi
Pathivara Goddess

The cold morning breeze, hundreds of pilgrimage and trekkers on the way adds separate feeling on mind and body. The well-managed stairways passing through rhododendron, dhupi, Gobre sallo forest with sightseeing of varieties species of butterflies, birds and wild animals forgotten the tiredness of trekking.
To experience the thrilling trek as well as to fulfill the religious beliefs it's not an easy task because to ascent high and reaching the altitude of 3794 m its quite challenging for the old peoples. To escape from the altitude sickness people on the way eat citrus fruits, some slices of ginger as well as shatu (especial powder of maize, barley, and soybean).
After a couple of ascents, we can reach a place named “Thulo Phedi” where well-arranged hotels, as well as tea shops, are serving the pilgrimages and trekkers. There is an entrance checkpoint where every people need to enter their name as well as deposit money in order to minimize the pollution at Pathivara. The deposit will be refunded after the people return back the wastes they have produced there. It was quite an amazing idea to minimize waste. People need to buy every required kit like water, worshipping materials, snacks as well as medicines required here because above from there, there were no shops and hotels.
Trek to Pathivara -- Buying worshiping materials to Pathivara
Pilgrimage buying worshipping items

After half an hour walk from Thulo Phedi, we arrived Kanchithan where people worship before heading to Pathivara. On the way, there are well managed resting places but less managed toilets. Usually, the way above 3000m will be covered with temporary snow. It was the month of November cold enough tough way with snow everywhere. The view of Kanchanjunga, Kumbakarna, Makula, Lhoste, and Notse was really mesmerizing and awesome. With the continuous rhythmic ringing of bells hung on the way arrive the destination, Pathivara temple at a height of 3794m.
Trek to Pathivara -- Map
Map of Pathivara trek

Pathivara Devi temple or Mukkumlung (as mentioned in Mundhum of Limbu people) is one of the most significant temples in Nepal located on the hill of Taplejung famous for both Hindu and Buddhist pilgrimage. 19.4 km North East from Punglingtar, headquarters of Taplejung it serves as the holy place for thousands of Pilgrimage from Nepal as well as India. Even serving as the secondary trekking route of Kanchanjunga it is believed that pilgrimage visiting here has the wish fulfilled.
The Goddess Pathivara is believed to possess supernatural powers and fulfill the desires of devotees. It is believed that local shepherds lost hundreds of their sheep while grazing at the same place where the temple stands today. Then the shepherds dreamed that Goddess ordered them to sacrifice a sheep following a ritual process. The lost herd of sheep was back after the ritual activity performed. Then they started worshipping Goddess Pathivara and built the temple which became the famous destination at present. Even the hill seems like a Pathi full of grains so-called Pathivara.  At present people sacrifice goats, sheep etc as well as different cosmetic items like bangles, tika, etc along with grains, money etc. The priest over there will support there to worship there. After the worship pilgrimage took some foods and was back to Thulo Phedi and to Phungling bazaar. Sharing of food among pilgrimage added taste to the food. All way returning back to Thulo Phedi with 3 hrs walk and one and half hour jeep travel finally arrived Phunglingtar.  My short trek to Pathivara was memorable and mesmerizing.
Trek to Pathivara -- Pathivara Temple Pheriphery
Pathivara 3794m height with bells

The suitable season for visit is summer and autumn season. We can enjoy the forest full of different varieties rhododendron if we visit during February/March. Another alternative route to Pathivara is following Koshi highway of 100km via Dharan- Dhankuta – Hile to Basantapur and hike via Gupha Pokhari, Gorghadoran to Pathivara. More than 2 lakhs of pilgrimage and trekkers visit everywhere. Even you can keep Pathivara trek in your buck list.