Ultimate Guide on How to Register .np Domain

.np Domain registration is free of cost for citizens of Nepal and Businesses with in Nepal. .np Domain is a ccTLD, country-code Top Level Domain. With .np domain we can register .com.np, .net.np, .org.np, .info.np, .edu.np and a lot more Domain Extensions. Here is the Ultimate Guide on How to Register .np Domain
.com.np is open for registration, ie. Any Entity eligible for .np domain can select the .com.np. where as .edu.np is for educational institutions and .org.np for organizations. And Criteria are applied for most of the other domains extensions.

What is .np Domain

.np domain is a country-code Top Level Domain for Nepal. A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code. All ASCII ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs.
Domain name is a unique identity in the World Wide Web. Once a domain name is registered by a user s/he has full control over that domain until it expires. Well, there is no expiry date for .np domain yet. Every domain name should be associated with an IP to locate the resource that is to be displayed in the web page. We need a DNS manager to point a domain to IP.

Requirement for .np Domain Registration

Here is a list of required docs for domain .np domain registration:
  • For Personal
    1. Scan Copy of Citizenship Card / Driving License
    2. An Application letter
  • For Businesses
    1. Scan Copy of Company registration certificate
    2. An Application written in official Cover Letter
This guide is for Personal Domain registration. Before Starting this guide. Here is some requirement:
  • Scan copy of Citizenship card
  • Email for Creating an account on DNS manager and Domain Registrar

Start Domain Registration

First Visit register.com.np and create Account

Enter your Full name, your email set a password and confirm it. We need this username and password so if necessary write it down.
Also, visit sso.godaddy.com and Create your account in Godaddy. Godaddy Provide DNS management tool for free. Learn about DNS management and Zone Records

You may need to add your mobile no. and verify your email address before further process. Check your Email account if there is any mail from np domain or GoDaddy and follow the instruction if any.
Now login to register.com.np and in the Apply new domain section, Search the domain name you want to register and click on Search. If the domain had already taken try a different name and different extensions, from the drop-down. For personal domain you can have .com.np, .info.np, .name.np.

Click in register now
Now we need Name Server. With Name Server your domain will be pointed to a DNS manager and you can manage other Zone records from there. So now login to Godaddy and follow dcc.godaddy.com/domains/dnsHosting/add. Enter your Domain name. Now you will get Two Name server. Use these name server in the Domain registration page. Fill other details about you and click save and continue

Now In the Attach required documents Select Registration/Citizenship card from DropDown. Then click on Choose File, Then Select your scanned copy of Citizenship and Click on Save Image. Remember it should be less than 800 KB. For cover letter follow Np Domain Registration Cover Letter Generator. Upload the cover letter and select Save Image. Then Click in Register Domain.

Domain request Received

Now your Domain is Registered. It needs to be approved, It would take some days. Insufficient information may cause delay in request processing. Make sure it's according to Terms and Conditions provided. If you follow all the processes. All required docs are provided and is under TOC.

To continue your Domain usages, and following different guide on the internet. If you are asked to modify some DNS record you can login to Godaddy and modify your DNS records. If you are asked to modify NS records you can still do this from Godaddy DNS.

Conclusion

We register .np Domain. .np Domain is a ccTLD. We user DNS management tool so that we can point to different domain according to our need without modifying the NS record, which would take more than a day. It would take some days for the domain to get approved and registered fully. Finally, your .np Domain is registered.

How Community Forest Enterprise can function effectively?

How Community Forest Enterprise can function effectively?
CFEs is one of the meaningful pathways for the alleviation of poverty of forest-dependent communities utilizing forest products from the community forest, local creativity, and entrepreneurship through the activities of community people. Forest resources have the potential to create economic opportunities at the local level and to strengthen resource conservation. The policy and attention are given to focus this activity utilizing forest products from the community forest. Many reformations have been made in the last few decades but still, there are lots of to reform for the betterment of the users involving in the enterprises in the community forest. Many new problems are arising with the change of market structure and demand and development of advanced technology. To overcome the competition faced by the enterprises with the development of advanced technology user also need to familiar to catch up the trend and need to reduce production cost to compete with other reveal products in the market.  Thus, from the study of three CFEs, it was found that some changes are needed to make based on the barrier each of the enterprises is facing.
Each enterprise has its own constraints and limitations that may due to geography, remoteness, traditional technology, locally inappropriate managerial procedure, and many more.

Functional on Annual Basis

The studied enterprises all were found to be operated seasonally that means they can’t run throughout the year. So, the dependent community can’t fully dependent on these enterprises. Thus, people get less interested in involving in enterprises in this sense. All the member involve have their own household works and they have to do all and look after their other economical sources to make their living. So, first of all, the enterprise should be made that operate the whole year. For that support should be provided by the authorized agency to collect raw materials required for the whole year or add up another diverse type of enterprise product to reduce dependency on single raw materials available in single season. This help to inspire locals and involve with full comfort. Among these enterprises, users found in allo enterprise keep them involved in allo thread weaving comparatively more time compare to other, in Lapsi enterprise they involve during available of lapsi that hardly last for four months and that only some days while in bel enterprise user involve during harvesting, processing, filling and packing of the final product. 

Facilities of the market for local products 

Availability of the market should be insured by any means. Encouraging locals and poor community in forest-based enterprises but not ensuring the market for the local production was the challenges faced by the members involved in it. No any clear provision to buy qualitative enterprise produce by the enterprises discourage enterprises to produce products in large quantity. Although there is market for these products, they are not well managed. The competition between similar products, distribution mechanisms of the products and lack of knowledge to the consumers the quality products creating troubles for local products. So, all the works from taking responsibility to buy quality enterprise product and promote and distribution responsibility should be done by an authorized agency so that it really contributes to the poor who involve in the enterprises after selling out their goods to market. The policies that encourage the use of local products, promotion, make aware the benefits of the goods, distribution, and knowledge to identify the original good should be provided and take responsibility.

Initiative in the establishment of forest-based enterprises in community forest.

The incentive to the user involving in the enterprises is required most to increase people participation of people in the enterprise's activities that helped to uplift their socio-economic condition. Since, a forest-based enterprise in community forest is targeted to socially and economically backward poor communities thus, to bring up the government should provide some sorts of incentives in the establishment of the enterprise so that they can make their living from the enterprises. During the establishment phase, it requires a large sum of investment for the economically weak communities. Government officials should take their initiative for establishing enterprise in the backward communities to overcome their troubles through providing them a sustainable source for making their living.

Training and educate users in managerial and enterprise processing technique

The general population in the rural area are unaware of managerial and other various techniques requires to operate the enterprises. Thus, they need to train first and give them lots of information and knowledge about the ways how people can take benefits, the responsibility they need to fulfill, the contribution they can make to improve enterprise activities in more competitive and effective ways. The necessary guide should be given and experience sharing should be encouraged thus, new members involving in the enterprise would be aware of how to do processing, marketing, recording transactions and supports, coordinating with other agencies, etc.

Use of advanced technology

The 21st Century markets are always competitive either that is due to similar products produce or substitutional products available in the market and are available in low price. The product price is low when their production cost is reduced. When the enterprise products are produced in less amount the production cost per each quantity is higher so, increasing no. of enterprise would help to reduce expenses made on each of the enterprises. Traditional methods of harvesting, transporting, processing and packing in each step if advanced technology is used then that would be cheaper in long run for comparatively larger enterprises.

Bel (Aegle marmelos) Enterprise in Tanahun Nepal

Mountain Tanahun Community Bel and Fruit Processing Enterprise is the Enterprise established focusing production and processing juice of Bel (Aegle marmelos) in Myagde Rural Municipality - 2, Jamunae (previously on Jamunae V.D.C. - 4). This enterprise operated in the participation of locals from six community forestry. This enterprise was established in 2071 B.S. This enterprise was registered in Home and Small Scale Bussiness Office Tanahun with registration number 3994 in Fiscal Year 2070/071. This enterprise is awarded the fourth prize of amount 5,000/- in National Exhibition - 2073.
Bel (Aegle marmelos) Enterprise in Tanahun Nepal-- Hoarding Board
Mountain Tanahun Community Bel and Fruit Processing Enterprise

Community Forest Involved

The contribution made by six community forests in support and collaboration of USAID, WWF, Care Nepal and FECOFUN for the establishment of the enterprise is a sample for the community forest enterprise around the country. The partner community forest of this enterprise are listed below:

  1. Shiddha Batasan Community Forest
  2. Umachowk Community Forest
  3. Jyan Tyang Community Forest
  4. Vhir Pani Community Forest
  5. Varchayang Community Forest
  6. Posheli Community Forest

This enterprise now produces the products beside Bel juice other enterprise products are Ginger juice and Lapshi Madha. This enterprise directly creates employment for seven people and indirectly involvement is higher up to 50-60 during harvesting seasons of Bel fruits Baisakh to Shrawan (April - July). This enterprise is utilizing wasting Bel-fruit for the production of Bel-juice and take a commercial shape. This product is new to the market as it is the new production and required skilled accordingly with required training also identifying its market was challenging factors during establishment.

Processes of Bel Juice Production

  1. Collection and Storage of Bel
  2. Grading of Fruit
  3. Cutting
  4. Extraction of pulp
  5. Mixing and Grinding pulp in boiled Water
  6. Filtration of concentrated juice
  7. Preservation and storage in airtight jars
  8. Packing and delivery to market.

Why and How Bel Juice Production and Processing Enterprise Established?

With the growth of population and increasing, urbanization and change in lifestyle create the use of various chemically contaminated products and consumes food poisoning chemical in an unnecessary amount that makes felt the importance of organic products without harmful chemical contamination. Thus, in recent years, various natural fruits have come up in priorities and people choice. Considering these all community forests interested in investing in Bel juice production and processing enterprise in support with the partner organization.

Problems faced by Bel Enterprise


  • Establishment of forest-based enterprise in community forest has its own difficulties. 
  • In addition to that, this is the enterprise operated by six community forests thus, gathering all those in a single platform is the first challenge. However, it's able to bring them all in a place. 
  • Following all these the additional problems is no initiative from the government, no discounts for community-based forest enterprise in Tax Policy.  
  • Especially, to check out the food quality of Bel Juice and other products they have to sent sample to the far distance for this organization and around the products need to be sent to Bhairawa.
  • Transportation of Bel juice or liquids has its problems. 
  • Fuel problem during enterprise production.
  • No permanency of the workers creates additional problems. 
  • Investment of money from all the groups together has a problem.

These problems can be solved with the solutions mention below:

  • The representative from every community forest has solved some problem however, the regular participation can't be insured due to far distance. This can be regularized with particular time schedule preparation for the organization regular gathering.
  • Policy for the operation of the forest-based enterprise and Tax Policy should be revised for the easiness of enterprise.
  • Checking food quality facility should be available either in district level or Province level so that time consuming during food quality check would be reduced significantly and adds easiness. Damauli or Pokhara would be in a convenient distance.
  • Incentives should be given for the transportation of liquids containers.
  • Electrification of the fueling system would help to reduce fuel problems.
  • Workers need to be ensured about their living from a significant amount of earning. 
  • A mechanism should be made to invest income in the community-based forest enterprise.



Trek to Pathivara

Trek to Pathivara is basically known as Limbu culture trek as well as religious trek.
Starting all way from Phunglingtar headquarter of Taplejung you can complete it just in one day or more days as you wish. After around couple of hour jeep ride passing through Suketar airport, Gupte, Chhat Dunga and Bhalu goude we can reach the place named Kafle Pati (2795m.). To challenge the cold weather people there to serve you hot tea and some breakfast as you wished but you need to pay. 4-5 tea shops including hotels are always to serve you with an adjoined well managed public toilet. Usually, people start their trek all way from here, Kafle Pati.
Trek to Pathivara -- Pathivara Devi
Pathivara Goddess

The cold morning breeze, hundreds of pilgrimage and trekkers on the way adds separate feeling on mind and body. The well-managed stairways passing through rhododendron, dhupi, Gobre sallo forest with sightseeing of varieties species of butterflies, birds and wild animals forgotten the tiredness of trekking.
To experience the thrilling trek as well as to fulfill the religious beliefs it's not an easy task because to ascent high and reaching the altitude of 3794 m its quite challenging for the old peoples. To escape from the altitude sickness people on the way eat citrus fruits, some slices of ginger as well as shatu (especial powder of maize, barley, and soybean).
After a couple of ascents, we can reach a place named “Thulo Phedi” where well-arranged hotels, as well as tea shops, are serving the pilgrimages and trekkers. There is an entrance checkpoint where every people need to enter their name as well as deposit money in order to minimize the pollution at Pathivara. The deposit will be refunded after the people return back the wastes they have produced there. It was quite an amazing idea to minimize waste. People need to buy every required kit like water, worshipping materials, snacks as well as medicines required here because above from there, there were no shops and hotels.
Trek to Pathivara -- Buying worshiping materials to Pathivara
Pilgrimage buying worshipping items

After half an hour walk from Thulo Phedi, we arrived Kanchithan where people worship before heading to Pathivara. On the way, there are well managed resting places but less managed toilets. Usually, the way above 3000m will be covered with temporary snow. It was the month of November cold enough tough way with snow everywhere. The view of Kanchanjunga, Kumbakarna, Makula, Lhoste, and Notse was really mesmerizing and awesome. With the continuous rhythmic ringing of bells hung on the way arrive the destination, Pathivara temple at a height of 3794m.
Trek to Pathivara -- Map
Map of Pathivara trek

Pathivara Devi temple or Mukkumlung (as mentioned in Mundhum of Limbu people) is one of the most significant temples in Nepal located on the hill of Taplejung famous for both Hindu and Buddhist pilgrimage. 19.4 km North East from Punglingtar, headquarters of Taplejung it serves as the holy place for thousands of Pilgrimage from Nepal as well as India. Even serving as the secondary trekking route of Kanchanjunga it is believed that pilgrimage visiting here has the wish fulfilled.
The Goddess Pathivara is believed to possess supernatural powers and fulfill the desires of devotees. It is believed that local shepherds lost hundreds of their sheep while grazing at the same place where the temple stands today. Then the shepherds dreamed that Goddess ordered them to sacrifice a sheep following a ritual process. The lost herd of sheep was back after the ritual activity performed. Then they started worshipping Goddess Pathivara and built the temple which became the famous destination at present. Even the hill seems like a Pathi full of grains so-called Pathivara.  At present people sacrifice goats, sheep etc as well as different cosmetic items like bangles, tika, etc along with grains, money etc. The priest over there will support there to worship there. After the worship pilgrimage took some foods and was back to Thulo Phedi and to Phungling bazaar. Sharing of food among pilgrimage added taste to the food. All way returning back to Thulo Phedi with 3 hrs walk and one and half hour jeep travel finally arrived Phunglingtar.  My short trek to Pathivara was memorable and mesmerizing.
Trek to Pathivara -- Pathivara Temple Pheriphery
Pathivara 3794m height with bells

The suitable season for visit is summer and autumn season. We can enjoy the forest full of different varieties rhododendron if we visit during February/March. Another alternative route to Pathivara is following Koshi highway of 100km via Dharan- Dhankuta – Hile to Basantapur and hike via Gupha Pokhari, Gorghadoran to Pathivara. More than 2 lakhs of pilgrimage and trekkers visit everywhere. Even you can keep Pathivara trek in your buck list.


Disable Service Auto Start on Windows

A service is a small program starts with Windows when it starts. Unlike Regular application which is launched by windows user, Windows service can start without user interaction and automatically when the machine booted. Here we will guide how to disable autostart of service.

Windows service handles a wide variety of functions including network connections, speaker sound, data backup, user credentials, display colors etc. There are also various services of other installed application.

What is Windows services

A service is a small program that usually starts when the Windows operating system loads. Windows Services are a core component of the Microsoft Windows operating system and enable the creation and management of long-running processes.

Service are used by windows to control a variety of task including, printing, sharing files, checking for software updates, network connections, speaker sound, data backup etc.

There are hundreds of services to manage the various task of windows. Third-party applications may also install their own services, like as a file backup tool, antivirus, disk encryption program, online backup utility, and more.

How to manage Windows services

To open Service Control Manager panel open Run(Win + R). Enter services.msc and Click Ok.
Run Open Service Manager
Windows Services are managed via the Services Control Manager panel. In this panel name, Description, Status and Startup Type are listed. Description show what the services for and what if this service is disabled. Status include running, stopped or paused.
Service Control Manager
You can Double click in the service to open the property panel. or Right click and click on properties. Here you can get the location of the executable file for this service. Here you can stop, pause, start, delay start, or resume each service as appropriate.

You can also control how the service starts, You can select Automatic (Delayed Start), which will automatically after the OS starts completely. You can select Automatic which will start the service automatically during the OS boots. Manual will start the service whenever you start or some other application starts the service.
Set Startup Type of Windows Service

Avoid setting it to “Disabled”, as doing so will result in various error messages as Windows will not be able to start it at all.

Conclusion

A service is a program that need no user interaction to run. It starts automatically whenever necessary. Some Third party application can also have service. You may not use them on every start, in this case, you can disable autostart of the service and start whenever necessary.

How to earn with blogging in Nepal

There are 100 of articles out there about earning with blogging. What make this unique? non. Here in this article we will include how to earn with blogging in Nepal. How Blogger can earn through Blogging.
Your blog is out there and your blog is getting 1000+ of visit a day its time to get return from your hard work. Let's start earning from the blog.
It is hard to start a blog to make money. But you can easily get started with earning from already established blog. Have no blog? Start a blog in Nepal.


Earning with ads in Blog

One of the most common methods to earn through blog is displaying ads in your blog. There are multiple option of advertising platform to select for your blog. Some of these options include Google AdSeanse, Infolinks, Media.net. Get Started with Google AdSense in Nepal.
You need to follow some of the terms form those advertising partner, to get started with displaying ads in your blog. You need to get get approved in displaying ads. If you have 500+ visit.


Earning with Affiliation Marketing

Affiliate promotions in one of the common methods of making money with a blog. Most of the popular blogs out there include affiliation links.
You will include a link to a product from other site. When your reader follow the link and ended up buying the product you will get commission on that sell.
Affiliation marketing is easy to get start with. You can sign up to the site providing affiliation marketing. Select a product related to your contents and add the link to that product in required line.


Earning with Membership Programs

You can start Membership program in your blog, where readers will pay you for premium contents, some services or tool. You can charge your users monthly or annually.
There are lots of websites which provide some free contents and need to pay to read all of the contents in that site.


Product and Service

You can earn through offering services to you readers. Services could be writing for them, creating reports of their products and more.
You can sell lots of products on your site. Some of the products could be ebooks, online courses, softwares etc.


Multiple Earning sources

With your blog you can earn through multiple sources. You can display ads, promote contents and earn through affiliation marketing

Each topic have its own multiple sub topics and sources. You can display local ads promoting their business.


Conclusion

Once the blog is established and have some regular views you can make start earning. First Start a blog, write contents that provide some value to users, promote your blog and get some visitors. Start earning, Thank you!

Seed Treatment and Seed Dormancy

Seed treatment is the treatment applied to seeds prior to sowing for rapidly completion of germination. Germination is prolonged or delayed unless the dormancy is removed. Seed dormancy is important factor limiting the production. It is the lack of germination in seeds or tubers under environmental conditions that are usually favorable for germination like the water, light, temperature and so on.
Based on the cause of seed dormancy, they are classified as physical seed dormancy (impermeable seed coat), chemical seed dormancy (prevent seed growth by the chemical in the seed coat) and mechanical seed dormancy (prevent expansion of seed growth even when permeable to water).
Seed Treatment and Seed Dormancy -- Seed treatment
Seed treatment

Seed germination depends on internal and external condition. Both the condition should favor for the well germination of the seed. When a single condition fulfill alone may not give proper germination. Thus, both the condition should match to give gemination to new plant.

Types of Seed Dormancy


  • In physical dormancy the seed coat is impermeable to water. 
  • In chemical dormancy the inhibitors in the seed coat prevent germination. 
  • Likewise, in mechanical dormancy the seed coat is permeable to water but is so tough that the expansion of the embryo is prevented.

The embryo not being fully developed at the time of seed fall also causes dormancy which needs a period of after- ripening before it become able to germinate on its own.

It is required to overcome the dormancy period so that seed can germinate may be by different means.

Methods of seed treatments

There are various methods with which the seeds can be treated that accelerates the germination process like:

  • Treatment through the use of water by soaking in cold water for one to two days before sowing, soaking in boiling water, alternate wetting and drying, Hot water scarification.
  • Passing through the animal body- Seeds of Acacia arabica, Santalum album can germinate quickly if they are passed through the body of animals and birds.
  • Mechanical treatment by cutting the hard seed coats of the seeds so that moisture may reach the inside of it.
  • Chemical treatment through limewater, dilute acids and alkali.
  • Scorching and fire treatment can be done by spreading seeds on the ground and giving a light burn with a layer of leaves spread.
  • Exposing the seeds to sun, wind and rain to crack its hard coat like of teak.
  • Fermentation and stratification- Seeds are spread on the ground covered with grass which is kept moist and fermentation is induced by adding inoculations from cattle sheds.


Seed Certification in Nepal

Seed is the input and material for planting or regeneration purpose. Seed certification is the legal procedure to maintain quality of seeds during the production of seeds, post harvesting and distribution of seeds. It is controlled and inspected by official sources to guarantee the quality of seeds to consumers. The concept of seed certification was originally from Sweden during 20th century. Seed Certification helps to maintain the availability of seed to the public with certification of high quality seeds maintaining many varieties and their kinds so that to maintain genetic identify and purity.
Seed Certification in Nepal-- seeds
Seeds


Procedure of Seed Certification


  • Certified Seed growers produces seed from breeder seed in small amount and multiply them in isolation to prevent the contamination from other varieties of crops and need to be harvested at the stage of maturity. Then, seeds need to be collected. The production and handling should follow the standard set up by certifying agency.
  • After when seeds are collected, they are transferred to seed store or to nursery for sowing or storage, the seed lot should have a certificate indicating species, date of collection, locality factors like aspects, elevation, soil condition, climatic conditions, method of storage, name of collector, quantity of seeds, date of dispatch, condition of seed at the time of dispatch. It includes field inspection, seed quality tests and pre-& post quality check.
  • A well-organized seed certification should be able to accomplish the following objectives of systematically increasing of superior varieties, identification of new varieties and their rapid increase, provision for continuous supply. Maintaining certain ‘Seed Multiplication Ratio (SMR)’based on its demand and requirement, the number of seeds produce from single seed is SMR. 

Seed Certification in Nepal

In Nepal, general knowledge is growing related to seed business as well with development, different seed production initiatives are carried on seed certification has been defined by the respective institute. Even when seed is to be purchased from private or from other state departments such certificates are essential. With long term vision Nepal adopted a holistic vision for the development of Nepal’s seed sector included in “National Seed Vision 2013 – 2025”. The leading organization for seed certification in Nepal is "Seed Quality Control Center".

This has been conducted obtaining accreditation from international community of seed certification. Establishment/functional organization which have duties and responsibilities of seed test and also have power to notify the kind and varieties. In Nepalese context, seeds are properly labeled and recorded in the register, following information should be included in the list like the species (Latin name and Nepali name), Date of collection, Place of collection, District, Zone.

Importance of seed certification


  • To maintain availability of seeds of high quality of different kinds and varieties to the farmers through certification. 
  • To ensure the acceptable standards of seed viability, vigor and purity and germination percentage.
  • Useful for the provenance test 
  • Help to achieve the objective of plantation 
  • Knowing the quality of mother tree
  • Vigorous of the growth and the degree of suitability to the site of plantation.
  • Better yield, drought tolerance, herbicide tolerance and pest tolerance with improved traits. 
  • Play important role as an important risk management tools.


Introduction to Bamboo


Bamboos belong to the family Graminae/Poaceae under tribe Bambooseae. There are 50 genera and about 1326 species of bamboos inhibiting the humid tropical, sub-tropical and mild temperate regions of the world. 75% percent of the total bamboos in the world are in Asia and India alone accounts for the 50 % of the total bamboo reserves in the world. Bamboos are mostly found associated with several species as they hardly occur in pure form like Anogeissus latifolia (Nepali Name- Banjhi ), Phyllanthus emblica ( Amala). Shorea robusta (Sal), Tectona grandis (Teak/Sagwan), Litsea monopetala ( Kutmiro), Lagerstroemia parviflora( Bot Dhainyaro), Terminalia spps. and so on. The distribution of bamboo is mostly governed by rainfall, temperature, latitude and soil type.
They are woody grasses in which the culms arise from the woody rhizomes. The culms are generally hollow with walls of varying thickness according to the species. The number of new culms produced varies distinctly with the type of species and the size and vigor of the clump. Bamboos require 8 to 36 degree Celsius and minimum of 100 cm of rainfall in its area for good growth.
Introduction to Bamboo -- Bamboo
Bamboo

Some of the popular species are Bambusa arundinacea, Bambus tulda, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus strictus,etc.

How Strong is the Bamboo?

Bamboo is harder than the traditional hard woods. In fact, it is harder by 2-3 times than most of hardwoods. The tensile strength of bamboo cable is as stronger as or stronger than steel cable of same dimension and it withstands compression better than concrete. The bamboo cables increase its strength when its wet by 20% different than hemp rope that loses 20% strength when wet. Home build up Bamboo have lifespan as long as or longer than any conventional wood framed building after it is properly installed and maintained. Bamboo structure has it history of 200 years in Japan.  

Uses of Bamboos

  • Bamboo is extensively used in place of a timber for variety of application like building houses, making scaffolds, flutes, fence posts, flooring, in developing countries making different fancy furniture products like baskets, handles, chair, tables, frames, foundations, doors and so on.
  • Bamboos' shoots are the portion commonly used as food by many people. The fast-growing shoot of bamboo is soft and are edible to human. The fibrous exterior is removed from the shoot and boiled as raw bamboo contains toxin producing cyanide in the gut.  In Nepal, a locally named product of bamboo 'tama' is very popular among people of both rural and urban area which is used as curry with other vegetables or as pickle.
  • It is also taken as fodder by animals. The leaves are nutritious and palatable. Giant panda of China, Red panda of Nepal, lemurs of Madagascar eat soft bamboo shoots, stems and leaves as their major food source. Elephant as well consume some species of bamboo as its favorite food.
  • The bamboos can be used as a measure for conserving soil and controlling land erosion on the degraded sites. Their shallow and fibrous root system allows for soil conservation.
  • Bamboo is used for purification and regulation of the environment, reduces greenhouse effects as they function as carbon sinks, produce oxygen, produce organic matter and regulate water level in watershed along with soil erosion control.


LGBT Rights in Nepal

Human beings are one of the amazing creatures of this universe. Every Human is unique and different from each other. In terms of behavior, choice, lifestyle, thoughts, there is a diversification among every human. In terms of sexuality, too there is a variation among the patterns of sexual attraction. Generally, it is thought that there are only 2 sexes I.e. male and female. But, there is a large portion of population which doesn't identify themselves as either Male or Female. In this article, we will be discussing about that portion of population that is different from Male and Female. Today, we will be discussing about rarely talked topic, LGBT.
LGBT Rights in Nepal
LGBT Rally

What is LGBT?

It is said that " Sex is biologically constructed whereas Gender is socially constructed ".   When a child is born in a family, it is a assigned as a particular sex according to the biological sex organ present in the body.  However, as the child grows, the child may/ may not feel comfortable with the Gender assigned by the society. Normally, Gender are assigned as either male or female and the behavior of the people emotionally  will also be similar as their assigned Gender. But, in the case of a portion of population,  the gender that was assigned as Male notices himself as a feminine person. He finds himself totally as a female in every aspects like behavior, emotions and feelings. He likes to wear the dress of the female and totally enjoys it. He finds naturally easier to talk with female friends rather than male mates. After reaching to the Teenage, he puts long hair, artificial breast structures, tight shorts and behaves completely as a female. Such persons are called " Transwoman ". Transwoman are the persons who were assigned as man at the birth but they identify themselves as Woman. Similarly, there are also other Trans groups, i.e. Transman. Transman are the persons who were assigned as woman at their birth but they identify themselves as man. Transman and Transwoman, both are commonly called as Transgenders.

What does LGBT?

Many persons assume that, in terms of sexual attraction, there is opposite sexual attraction and the sexual attraction is only between Male and Female. But, as seen in nature there are 100s of species that are attracted to the same sex in unique sexual behaviors. They are called Homosexuals. From the ancient times, Homosexuality is seen in humans too. 
  • It means there are a lot of people who are Female and their sexual attraction is towards Female. They are called " Lesbians ". 
  • Similarly, there are a lot of people who are Male and their sexual attraction is towards Male. They are called " Gay ". 
  • Similarly, there are people that are attracted towards both male and female, they are called " Bisexuals ". 
  • Person born either as a man or woman but identify theemselves as opposite sex are considered as "Transgender".  
  • So, LGBT collectively refers to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgenders.
The presence of these types of behaviors can be cited from ancient religious scriptures to the modern psychological literatures with a lot of controversies. Many people still assume that " Homosexuality is unnatural and it is against the laws of procreation ". They argue that homosexuality is mental disorder. Not strange, World Health Organization (WHO) had also listed homosexuality as a mental disorder. But, with the advancements in the researches, WHO regretfully removed homosexuality from the list of mental disorders in 1992. 

LGBT Status in Nepal

As of report, published by Blue Diamond Society, there are more than 9,00,000 LGBT people living in Nepal. LGBT communities are one of the most suppressed communities in the human society. Influenced by religious orthodox, so called social norms, values and disciplines, many people consider LGBT as abnormal. Transgender people are often considered as a source of joke and are misbehaved with the words like " Chhakka", " Hijra " .They are commonly kicked out of their homes at their early teenage due to their different behavior. In Schools, they are misbehaved and bullied by their friends and teachers and most are restricted from school. Due, to which the education status of Transgenders in developing countries like Nepal is very low which directly affects the Human Development Index (HDI) of the community. Similarly, " Marriage " and " Relationships " are considered as the most important and fundamental aspect. In countries like Nepal, where there are lots of taboos and beliefs considering Marriage, same sex marriage and relationship is not accepted by majority of the parents. Due, to which the emotions of homosexuals are crushed socially. Sadly, there is a high rate of suicide observed among these communities.

LGBT Rights in Nepal

Despite of the hatred and suppression done by the society, there are rays of hopes for the LGBT community. The political change after the People's movement in 2007, legalized homosexuality in Nepal. Similarly, the Constitution of Nepal- 2072 which is considered as one of the most inclusive and progressive constitution of the World has addressed the issues of these community. There are some provisions like the right to have their preferred gender display on their identity cards. Similarly, there is a prohibition on discrimination on any ground including sex or sexual orientation by the State or  by anyone. The substitution of gender-neutral terms for the previous "male", "female", "son", and "daughter" is granted. Also, The right of access to state process and public services for gender and sexual minorities

How to deliver your research paper?


Delivering presentation at academic seminar is also one of the important part of the research. However, we have to be careful about couple of things to make the presentation seem better. To be an effective presenter, one should be energetic, enthusiastic and passionate about it.
How to deliver your research paper?



How to deliever research paper effectively?

  1. Preparation and practice is the key to delivering the effective presentation.Prepare delivering your presentation content beforehand in front of friends, family to make the final one run smooth.
  2. Presentation software are another key aspect. Almost every individual uses this type of software packages nowadays. Choosing the right tools available for right information is essential. 
  3.  The content should be slightly different than the journal article as it is to be presented before the audience and grab their attention and make them understand. The paper should be structured in a clear, concise and coherent way depicting clear flow of information.
  4. The presentation should be practiced so that it falls within the limit given. Remember, finishing within the allocated time is also the important aspect.
  5. Introduction should be quick and grabbing the attention of the audience at first is important. This can be done by maintaining eye contact with the audiences.
  6. Throughout the presentation the presenter should be confident, assertive maintaining good posture, gestures and  language.
  7. The voice should also be maintained with volume enough to reach the audience and clear enough to understanding with varying pace and pitch as required. Pause after finishing some lines and whenever required makes the articulation great rather than mere continuous flow of sentences. Use transitions while moving from one slide to the other.
  8. There will be question and answer session after finishing delivering the paper. Answer the questions asked at the end of the session politely and thank for any suggestion given.

These were few of the general things that has to be kept in mind in delivering a effective academic presentation. Hope this helps!

Scientific and Local Name of Tree Species found in Nepal

Nepal is rich in biodiversity. Nepal has various plants, animal and ecological variations. The different ecological region like tropical zone, sub-tropical zone, temperate zone, sub-alpine and alpine helps to grows up different vegetation types in respective ecological zone. The altitude from low plain warmer region to Cold high mountain with temperate region neither hot nor cold temperature variation gives rise to various types of vegetations and tree species. Some of the major tree species of Nepal are listed below in the tabular form. The tabular form includes name of tree species in widely and standard naming system that is binomial nomenclature and the popular name in Nepal. It involves the genus name, and the specific name for naming an organism with the help of two names.
Scientific and Local Name of Tree Species found in Nepal-- Tree species
Tree species of Nepal

Scientific name and Nepali name of Tree Species of Nepal


Scientific Name        
Nepali Name
Acacia catechu
Khair
Acacia nilotica
Babul
Atrocarpus heterophyllus
Katahar
Adina cordifolia
karma
Aegle marmelos
Bel
Aesendra butyraceae
Chiuri
Agave spps.
Hattibar
Alnus nepalensis
Utis
Alstonia scholaris
Chhatiwan
Annona reticulata
Sitaphal
Annona squamosal
Sarifa
Anogeisus latifolia
Banjhi
Anthocephalus chinesis
Kadam
Areca catechu
Supadi
Artocarpus lakoocha
Badhar
Arundinaria falcata
Nigalo
Azadirachta indica
Neem
Bauhinia vahlii
Malu
Bauhinia variegate
Koiralo
Berberis aristata
Chutro
Bombax ceiba
Simal
Caesalpina bonduc
Kandaa
Carica papaya
Papaya
Albizia lebbeck
Kalo siris
Albizia procera
Seto siris
Choerospondias axillaris
Lapsi
Cinnamomum camphora
Kapur
Cinnamomum tamala
Dalchini/Tejpat
Coccinea grandis
Tilkar
Coccus nulifera
Nariwal
Dalbergia latifolia
Satisal
Daphne bholua
Lokta
Delonix regia
Gulmohar
Dendrocalamu spps.
Baans
Dillenia pentagyna
Tatri
Tectona grandis
Teak
Shorea robusta
Sal
Dalbergia sissoo
Sissoo
Fraxinus floribunda
Lankuri
Jatropa curcus
Sajiwan
Castanopsis indica
Dhale katus
Castanopsis hystrix
Patle katus
Castanopsis tribuloides
Musure katus
Acer oblongum
Phirphire
Brassaiopsis hainla
Seto chuletro
Brassaiopsis glomerulata
Kalo chuletro
Bridelia retusa
Gayo
Buddleja asiatica
Bhimsenpati
Cordia dichotoma
Bohori
Daphniphyllum himalense
Rakchan
Exbucklandia populnea
Pipla
Ilex excelsa
Puwanle
Juglans regia
Okhar
Lannea coromandelica
Jhingat/Hallongre
Leucosceptrum canum
Bhusure/Ghurmiso
Michelia champaca
Champ
Pinus roxburghii
Rani salla
Pinus wallichiana
Gobre salla
Prunus cerasoids
Painyu
Salix babylonica
Bains
Saurauria napaulensis
Gogan
Schima wallichi
Chilaune
Abies pindrow
Gobre salla
Abies spectabilis
Talispatra
Juniperus indica
Juniper