Trek to Pathivara

Trek to Pathivara is basically known as Limbu culture trek as well as religious trek.
Starting all way from Phunglingtar headquarter of Taplejung you can complete it just in one day or more days as you wish. After around couple of hour jeep ride passing through Suketar airport, Gupte, Chhat Dunga and Bhalu goude we can reach the place named Kafle Pati (2795m.). To challenge the cold weather people there to serve you hot tea and some breakfast as you wished but you need to pay. 4-5 tea shops including hotels are always to serve you with an adjoined well managed public toilet. Usually, people start their trek all way from here, Kafle Pati.
Trek to Pathivara -- Pathivara Devi
Pathivara Goddess

The cold morning breeze, hundreds of pilgrimage and trekkers on the way adds separate feeling on mind and body. The well-managed stairways passing through rhododendron, dhupi, Gobre sallo forest with sightseeing of varieties species of butterflies, birds and wild animals forgotten the tiredness of trekking.
To experience the thrilling trek as well as to fulfill the religious beliefs it's not an easy task because to ascent high and reaching the altitude of 3794 m its quite challenging for the old peoples. To escape from the altitude sickness people on the way eat citrus fruits, some slices of ginger as well as shatu (especial powder of maize, barley, and soybean).
After a couple of ascents, we can reach a place named “Thulo Phedi” where well-arranged hotels, as well as tea shops, are serving the pilgrimages and trekkers. There is an entrance checkpoint where every people need to enter their name as well as deposit money in order to minimize the pollution at Pathivara. The deposit will be refunded after the people return back the wastes they have produced there. It was quite an amazing idea to minimize waste. People need to buy every required kit like water, worshipping materials, snacks as well as medicines required here because above from there, there were no shops and hotels.
Trek to Pathivara -- Buying worshiping materials to Pathivara
Pilgrimage buying worshipping items

After half an hour walk from Thulo Phedi, we arrived Kanchithan where people worship before heading to Pathivara. On the way, there are well managed resting places but less managed toilets. Usually, the way above 3000m will be covered with temporary snow. It was the month of November cold enough tough way with snow everywhere. The view of Kanchanjunga, Kumbakarna, Makula, Lhoste, and Notse was really mesmerizing and awesome. With the continuous rhythmic ringing of bells hung on the way arrive the destination, Pathivara temple at a height of 3794m.
Trek to Pathivara -- Map
Map of Pathivara trek

Pathivara Devi temple or Mukkumlung (as mentioned in Mundhum of Limbu people) is one of the most significant temples in Nepal located on the hill of Taplejung famous for both Hindu and Buddhist pilgrimage. 19.4 km North East from Punglingtar, headquarters of Taplejung it serves as the holy place for thousands of Pilgrimage from Nepal as well as India. Even serving as the secondary trekking route of Kanchanjunga it is believed that pilgrimage visiting here has the wish fulfilled.
The Goddess Pathivara is believed to possess supernatural powers and fulfill the desires of devotees. It is believed that local shepherds lost hundreds of their sheep while grazing at the same place where the temple stands today. Then the shepherds dreamed that Goddess ordered them to sacrifice a sheep following a ritual process. The lost herd of sheep was back after the ritual activity performed. Then they started worshipping Goddess Pathivara and built the temple which became the famous destination at present. Even the hill seems like a Pathi full of grains so-called Pathivara.  At present people sacrifice goats, sheep etc as well as different cosmetic items like bangles, tika, etc along with grains, money etc. The priest over there will support there to worship there. After the worship pilgrimage took some foods and was back to Thulo Phedi and to Phungling bazaar. Sharing of food among pilgrimage added taste to the food. All way returning back to Thulo Phedi with 3 hrs walk and one and half hour jeep travel finally arrived Phunglingtar.  My short trek to Pathivara was memorable and mesmerizing.
Trek to Pathivara -- Pathivara Temple Pheriphery
Pathivara 3794m height with bells

The suitable season for visit is summer and autumn season. We can enjoy the forest full of different varieties rhododendron if we visit during February/March. Another alternative route to Pathivara is following Koshi highway of 100km via Dharan- Dhankuta – Hile to Basantapur and hike via Gupha Pokhari, Gorghadoran to Pathivara. More than 2 lakhs of pilgrimage and trekkers visit everywhere. Even you can keep Pathivara trek in your buck list.


Disable Service Auto Start on Windows

A service is a small program starts with Windows when it starts. Unlike Regular application which is launched by windows user, Windows service can start without user interaction and automatically when the machine booted. Here we will guide how to disable autostart of service.

Windows service handles a wide variety of functions including network connections, speaker sound, data backup, user credentials, display colors etc. There are also various services of other installed application.

What is Windows services

A service is a small program that usually starts when the Windows operating system loads. Windows Services are a core component of the Microsoft Windows operating system and enable the creation and management of long-running processes.

Service are used by windows to control a variety of task including, printing, sharing files, checking for software updates, network connections, speaker sound, data backup etc.

There are hundreds of services to manage the various task of windows. Third-party applications may also install their own services, like as a file backup tool, antivirus, disk encryption program, online backup utility, and more.

How to manage Windows services

To open Service Control Manager panel open Run(Win + R). Enter services.msc and Click Ok.
Run Open Service Manager
Windows Services are managed via the Services Control Manager panel. In this panel name, Description, Status and Startup Type are listed. Description show what the services for and what if this service is disabled. Status include running, stopped or paused.
Service Control Manager
You can Double click in the service to open the property panel. or Right click and click on properties. Here you can get the location of the executable file for this service. Here you can stop, pause, start, delay start, or resume each service as appropriate.

You can also control how the service starts, You can select Automatic (Delayed Start), which will automatically after the OS starts completely. You can select Automatic which will start the service automatically during the OS boots. Manual will start the service whenever you start or some other application starts the service.
Set Startup Type of Windows Service

Avoid setting it to “Disabled”, as doing so will result in various error messages as Windows will not be able to start it at all.

Conclusion

A service is a program that need no user interaction to run. It starts automatically whenever necessary. Some Third party application can also have service. You may not use them on every start, in this case, you can disable autostart of the service and start whenever necessary.

How to earn with blogging in Nepal

There are 100 of articles out there about earning with blogging. What make this unique? non. Here in this article we will include how to earn with blogging in Nepal. How Blogger can earn through Blogging.
Your blog is out there and your blog is getting 1000+ of visit a day its time to get return from your hard work. Let's start earning from the blog.
It is hard to start a blog to make money. But you can easily get started with earning from already established blog. Have no blog? Start a blog in Nepal.


Earning with ads in Blog

One of the most common methods to earn through blog is displaying ads in your blog. There are multiple option of advertising platform to select for your blog. Some of these options include Google AdSeanse, Infolinks, Media.net. Get Started with Google AdSense in Nepal.
You need to follow some of the terms form those advertising partner, to get started with displaying ads in your blog. You need to get get approved in displaying ads. If you have 500+ visit.


Earning with Affiliation Marketing

Affiliate promotions in one of the common methods of making money with a blog. Most of the popular blogs out there include affiliation links.
You will include a link to a product from other site. When your reader follow the link and ended up buying the product you will get commission on that sell.
Affiliation marketing is easy to get start with. You can sign up to the site providing affiliation marketing. Select a product related to your contents and add the link to that product in required line.


Earning with Membership Programs

You can start Membership program in your blog, where readers will pay you for premium contents, some services or tool. You can charge your users monthly or annually.
There are lots of websites which provide some free contents and need to pay to read all of the contents in that site.


Product and Service

You can earn through offering services to you readers. Services could be writing for them, creating reports of their products and more.
You can sell lots of products on your site. Some of the products could be ebooks, online courses, softwares etc.


Multiple Earning sources

With your blog you can earn through multiple sources. You can display ads, promote contents and earn through affiliation marketing

Each topic have its own multiple sub topics and sources. You can display local ads promoting their business.


Conclusion

Once the blog is established and have some regular views you can make start earning. First Start a blog, write contents that provide some value to users, promote your blog and get some visitors. Start earning, Thank you!

Seed Treatment and Seed Dormancy

Seed treatment is the treatment applied to seeds prior to sowing for rapidly completion of germination. Germination is prolonged or delayed unless the dormancy is removed. Seed dormancy is important factor limiting the production. It is the lack of germination in seeds or tubers under environmental conditions that are usually favorable for germination like the water, light, temperature and so on.
Based on the cause of seed dormancy, they are classified as physical seed dormancy (impermeable seed coat), chemical seed dormancy (prevent seed growth by the chemical in the seed coat) and mechanical seed dormancy (prevent expansion of seed growth even when permeable to water).
Seed Treatment and Seed Dormancy -- Seed treatment
Seed treatment

Seed germination depends on internal and external condition. Both the condition should favor for the well germination of the seed. When a single condition fulfill alone may not give proper germination. Thus, both the condition should match to give gemination to new plant.

Types of Seed Dormancy


  • In physical dormancy the seed coat is impermeable to water. 
  • In chemical dormancy the inhibitors in the seed coat prevent germination. 
  • Likewise, in mechanical dormancy the seed coat is permeable to water but is so tough that the expansion of the embryo is prevented.

The embryo not being fully developed at the time of seed fall also causes dormancy which needs a period of after- ripening before it become able to germinate on its own.

It is required to overcome the dormancy period so that seed can germinate may be by different means.

Methods of seed treatments

There are various methods with which the seeds can be treated that accelerates the germination process like:

  • Treatment through the use of water by soaking in cold water for one to two days before sowing, soaking in boiling water, alternate wetting and drying, Hot water scarification.
  • Passing through the animal body- Seeds of Acacia arabica, Santalum album can germinate quickly if they are passed through the body of animals and birds.
  • Mechanical treatment by cutting the hard seed coats of the seeds so that moisture may reach the inside of it.
  • Chemical treatment through limewater, dilute acids and alkali.
  • Scorching and fire treatment can be done by spreading seeds on the ground and giving a light burn with a layer of leaves spread.
  • Exposing the seeds to sun, wind and rain to crack its hard coat like of teak.
  • Fermentation and stratification- Seeds are spread on the ground covered with grass which is kept moist and fermentation is induced by adding inoculations from cattle sheds.


Seed Certification in Nepal

Seed is the input and material for planting or regeneration purpose. Seed certification is the legal procedure to maintain quality of seeds during the production of seeds, post harvesting and distribution of seeds. It is controlled and inspected by official sources to guarantee the quality of seeds to consumers. The concept of seed certification was originally from Sweden during 20th century. Seed Certification helps to maintain the availability of seed to the public with certification of high quality seeds maintaining many varieties and their kinds so that to maintain genetic identify and purity.
Seed Certification in Nepal-- seeds
Seeds


Procedure of Seed Certification


  • Certified Seed growers produces seed from breeder seed in small amount and multiply them in isolation to prevent the contamination from other varieties of crops and need to be harvested at the stage of maturity. Then, seeds need to be collected. The production and handling should follow the standard set up by certifying agency.
  • After when seeds are collected, they are transferred to seed store or to nursery for sowing or storage, the seed lot should have a certificate indicating species, date of collection, locality factors like aspects, elevation, soil condition, climatic conditions, method of storage, name of collector, quantity of seeds, date of dispatch, condition of seed at the time of dispatch. It includes field inspection, seed quality tests and pre-& post quality check.
  • A well-organized seed certification should be able to accomplish the following objectives of systematically increasing of superior varieties, identification of new varieties and their rapid increase, provision for continuous supply. Maintaining certain ‘Seed Multiplication Ratio (SMR)’based on its demand and requirement, the number of seeds produce from single seed is SMR. 

Seed Certification in Nepal

In Nepal, general knowledge is growing related to seed business as well with development, different seed production initiatives are carried on seed certification has been defined by the respective institute. Even when seed is to be purchased from private or from other state departments such certificates are essential. With long term vision Nepal adopted a holistic vision for the development of Nepal’s seed sector included in “National Seed Vision 2013 – 2025”. The leading organization for seed certification in Nepal is "Seed Quality Control Center".

This has been conducted obtaining accreditation from international community of seed certification. Establishment/functional organization which have duties and responsibilities of seed test and also have power to notify the kind and varieties. In Nepalese context, seeds are properly labeled and recorded in the register, following information should be included in the list like the species (Latin name and Nepali name), Date of collection, Place of collection, District, Zone.

Importance of seed certification


  • To maintain availability of seeds of high quality of different kinds and varieties to the farmers through certification. 
  • To ensure the acceptable standards of seed viability, vigor and purity and germination percentage.
  • Useful for the provenance test 
  • Help to achieve the objective of plantation 
  • Knowing the quality of mother tree
  • Vigorous of the growth and the degree of suitability to the site of plantation.
  • Better yield, drought tolerance, herbicide tolerance and pest tolerance with improved traits. 
  • Play important role as an important risk management tools.