Mushroom farming in Nepal

Mushroom is a parasitic plant that depends on other decay organic matter for their nutritional needs. Mushroom can’t make their own food by themselves. Since, Mushroom is rich in phyto-chemicals so that it boosts immunity power to protect against colds, flu and other viruses when consumed by human. It also helps to prevents many health issues like cancer, diabetes and tumors and many more.  Mushroom also boost health heart keeping immune system healthy and strong.

Mushrooms are edible fungus which have health benefits. The mushroom can be grown indoors and supply to the consumers thus its commercial value has been increasing nowadays. The mushroom farming is a fast growing sector of agriculture because of its short high return. Highly nutritious mushroom also popularly called ‘vegetable meat’. It consists of Protein, Carbohydrate, Vitamins, Minerals, Fiber, etc with almost fat free.

The relation with Mushroom goes many years back. In past wild mushroom had been collected by some ethnic community and accepted eating socially and culturally but nobody cultivates. On later days, with understanding the health value and benefits of mushrooms, people begin to cultivate.

Benefits of Mushroom Consumption


  1. Mushroom are low in calories, fat content, cholesterol and very low in sodium. Thus, become a important healthy nutritional source. 
  2. The important components available when consuming mushroom are selenium, antioxidant minerals, calcium, riboflavin, niacin, Vitamin D, copper, potassium, protein, iron and phosphorous.

Mushroom farming in Nepal -- White Button Mushroom
White Button Mushroom

Commercially mushroom farming is still a new concept to Nepal although it was first introduced in 1974 by Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC). The first introduce mushroom species is ‘White Button Mushroom’ in 1977. Then, Oyster mushroom was introduced in 1984 in Kathmandu and Bhaktapur.  Now, there are 5000- 6000 mushroom farmers in Kathmandu alone. In an average each farmer produces 10,000 kg mushroom per day. Farmers of Pokhara and Chitwan are also increasing in producing mushroom in significant amount. There are many mushroom cultivation farm in Nepal that produces different verity of mushrooms. Mushroom cultivation has become the milestone in the modernization of traditional agriculture system of Nepal.

Nowadays, organic farming of mushroom is more prefer over conventional ways of producing mushroom for producing high quality organic mushrooms. In this modern concept of farming, mushroom is grown under controlled condition thus, ensures there is no any contamination during farming only using viable seeds from trusted source seeds (spawns) year around.

Commercially all together 5 species of mushroom are cultivated in Nepal currently. They are:

  • White Button Mushroom: It is the most popular among other mushroom covering 85% of whole portion of the production. It is highly suitable for distant farmers for marketing and processing. Production cost is little higher while giving better profit. 
  • Oyster Mushroom: It is most suitable in mid-hills of Nepal. Farming of this mushroom has been expanded widely in those villages. It can be grown in small land area thus suitable for poor landless farmers.
  • Shiitake
  • Straw Mushroom
  • Ganoderma


The production of mushroom has grown up rapidly in last decade. In the same way, the consumers of the mushroom have grown up reciprocally. The production of mushroom exceeds 10,000 metric tons every year.  In Nepal, mushroom can be grown year round in natural environment.
Farmers need to be well train and give them the technical knowledge about how to grow mushrooms and how to manage the mushroom farm properly following best management system. Few organizations are providing training to farmers but still based on its huge potential the training are few in numbers and inaccessible to the farmers of sub-urbans and rural areas where there is tremendous potential. The improper road network and infrastructure in many cases makes markets far from production site. Thus, producers can’t receive enough benefits. Also, with the raising mushroom farming farmers the competition among them increases and farmers with lower services definitely lose their portion.

Mushroom Seed Production

Production of Mushroom seeds are also in the phase of continuous growing similar to the production of mushroom. The production of mushroom seeds is over 20 Lakhs bottles each year. 
This shows mushroom farming has greater potential in income generational activities. Due to altitudinal variation of Nepal varies variety of mushroom can be grown in different region which help to contribute in the socio-economic condition of people in the society.

Mushroom farming skills has become one of the best income generating skills to economically background community if they are well trained and facilitated in farming. Mushroom is the best cash crop, that sustain farmer’s beneficiaries. Economical dependency of women would definitely reduce when women are well trained in mushroom farming thus that help in women empowerment and women strengthen.


Mushroom farming in Nepal Mushroom farming in Nepal Reviewed by Amrit Devkota on October 21, 2019 Rating: 5

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