Governance is a process providing the efficiency of service delivery to people being governed by the state fulfilling the need and aspirations of the people. It is the medium to establish the interrelation between the state and citizens. It is the process of conducting state. It can simply be regarded as a set of systems and processes concerned with ensuring the overall direction, effectiveness, supervision, and accountability of an organization. With the rise of the Roman civilization, state governance was developed rather than the caste and tribe. Magna Carta (1215 AD), Declaration of rights (1628 AD) and Bill of Rights (1688 AD) in England established the democratic way of a rule rather than the will of the ruler.


Actors of Governance

Government: The functions of government in governance are making Policies and Acts, maintaining economic stability, providing public service delivery, building infrastructure, social protection, and security.
Private sectors: Private sectors are involved in employment creation, economic growth, technology development, and innovation, conducting business and industries, and promoting competition and entrepreneurship.
Civil societies: They are involved in conducting a social campaign, making the government perform their role under the policies of the state by creating pressure and support, non-profit and charity works, capacity development of the citizens, and advocating human rights.

New trends of Governance

Responsive Governance:- Governance that is responsible to the people by hearing the view of people, taking feedback and suggestions, and addressing such issues in the state conduction.
Open Governance:- Liberal economy and open politics are credited to the development of open governance. Except for the confidential matters, all the other works of the government should be transparent as per the prevailing laws.
Multi-level Governance:- The involvement of different actors in governance is multi-level governance. Private sectors, NGOs, Co-operatives are getting involved in governance through various interactions and ways.
Good Governance:- Accountability. Transparency, Rule of law amongst others are the pre-requisite for good governance.

Basic characteristics of Governance

Citizens supremacy:- Citizen should always be kept in focus and it is because of the will and desire of the people the state is conducted.
Rule of law:-  No one should be above law. Law should be the supreme power in governance.
Regulatory power:- Check and balance of power should be in the governance process between different bodies and organs of the government and state.
Representative system:-Citizens exercise their right to vote to select a suitable representative candidate for the conduction of the governance.
Separation and Balance of power:- Constitution provide definite rights and power for every organ of the governance system.

Fundamental Aspects of Governance 

Government: The government plays the role of manager and path director of the state.It is the main actor for the state conduction. It is an organ which directly practices politics.
Territory: If there is no presence of territory there is no state and no governance. The governance system is dependent on the extent of territory presence.
Population: Populations are the means and resources of the state and the sovereign power is in the people. The participation, awareness, and political affinity of the people determine the governance system.
Recognition: Recognition is required in internal and international level to maintain the legitimacy of the state as a country has to be dependent on other countries around the globe.
Sovereignty: It is the right and power of the governing body to govern itself without any interference. 

Context of governance

Autocratic Governance system 
Governance by a single ruler or a single party.
1. Totalitarian Governance Systems- All the state power is centered on the ruler and the wants and desires of the people are not taken into account. N. Korea
2. Creative Governance System- There are no provisions for party competition but the economic and social development of the country are the main priority. China, Singapore, Malaysia.

Democratic Governance system 
It is people-based governance. It is done in people's agreement for the welfare of the people. It is more popular in today's world.
1. Liberal democratic Governance system- This is practiced in the USA, UK, India, Japan which is based on the competition of the parties/ individual and no special provisions for promotion and reservation.
2. Democratic Governance system- Practice of inclusiveness, a proportional system in election like in Nepal, South Africa, Uganda practice this system of governance.