e- Governance

e-Governance is an abbreviation form of Electronic governance. e-governance is the act of applying ICT (Information and Communication Technology) for the purpose of delivering government services, communication, and exchange of data and information between different stakeholders in governance. In another word, the use of electric means to promote good governance is e-governance which helps to enhance government ability to address public needs. 

e-Governance is of different types based on the type of services. In the main four types of e-Governance, the interaction may be
  • G2C(Government-Customer), 
  • G2B (Government-Business), 
  • G2G(Government-Government),
  • G2E(Government-Employee).
The development of the concept can be traced back to the presidency of Bill Clinton when the Government Paper Work Elimination Act 1998 was passed. It, therefore, is the path from paperwork to paperless government. After all, the main objective of e-Governance is delivering or exchanging information within and across the government and business organization for enhancing the business transactions, providing better services to the citizen, and handle interactions. e-Governance implies the use of ICT in transforming and supporting functions and structures of the system.

Principles of e-governance

The United States conducted a study in 2002 of 190 member states which represent the largest and most comprehensive study done so far that represents the global e-governance issues. Based on the surveyed results the following five guiding principles of e-Governance were provided:
  1. Building services around citizen’s choices
  2. Making the government and its services more accessible
  3. Social inclusion
  4. Providing information responsibly
  5. Using IT and human resources effectively and efficiently

Benefits of e-Governance

e-Governance is an improved form of governance which enabled by the resourceful use of Information and Communications Technology. e-Governance helps better access information and excellent service to peoples. Also, it brings simplicity, efficiency, and accountability in government. e-Governance brought a transformation in the way the government deliver service, proceed workflow, reduce transaction cost with improvement in transparency and accountability. Also, it helps to reduce corruption and improve accountability by making progress reports of major public projects. Some major benefits are listed as;
  • It helps with providing better access and quality services to its citizens saving time, money and effort both by itself and the citizens which promote good relationships between people and government,
  • It increases accountability and transparency in the government works and citizen’s Right to information.
  • Complex and redundant processes are simplified enhancing efficiency and effectiveness.
  • Promotes the participation and sense of ownership of citizens in government and governance.
Legal provisions in Nepal
Electronic transaction Act 2063
Good Governance Act 2064
Public procurement Act 2063

Use of e-Governance in Nepal

e-Governance in Nepal evolved from the computerization of Government Departments. Now, it’s working on providing government services that accessible through the internet. Also, the government process or function is out online in digital form. Some major areas where e-Governance is practiced in Nepal are listed below: 
  • Regularly updated Government websites providing numerous information
  • Provision of e- bidding
  • Online banking, SMS banking- Pan provisions
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs- MRP (Machine Readable Passport)
  • Ministry of Finance- Budget Management Information system (BMIS), Line Ministry Budget Information System (LMIS)
  • Public service commission- Notices, form, online application
  • Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and Transportation – Vehicle registration information system, Driving license issuance system, Smart license

Challenges of e-Governance in Nepal

Regarding e-Governance importance, it still has some hurdles like: adds digital gaps between urban and rural settings, poverty, illiteracy, security and cost of implementation, etc. are the issues and challenges that appearing which are a serious concern to the government. e-Governance helps to improve the efficiency of the current system (Paper-based system) by implementing electronic government however, it requires an equivalent amount of money and time to established accessories. The major challenges in Nepal are listed as:
  • Cybersecurity
  • Managing the financial resources for the establishment of electronic infrastructure
  • Making available in all parts of the area in the country
  • Reducing the Digital Divide
  • Political stability for committed e-governance friendly government