Introduction to Bamboo

Bamboos belong to the family Graminae/Poaceae under tribe Bambooseae. There are 50 genera and about 1326 species of bamboos inhibiting the humid tropical, sub-tropical and mild temperate regions of the world. 75% percent of the total bamboos in the world are in Asia and India alone accounts for the 50 % of the total bamboo reserves in the world. Bamboos are mostly found associated with several species as they hardly occur in pure form like Anogeissus latifolia (Nepali Name- Banjhi ), Phyllanthus emblica ( Amala). Shorea robusta (Sal), Tectona grandis (Teak/Sagwan), Litsea monopetala ( Kutmiro), Lagerstroemia parviflora( Bot Dhainyaro), Terminalia spps. and so on. The distribution of bamboo is mostly governed by rainfall, temperature, latitude and soil type.
They are woody grasses in which the culms arise from the woody rhizomes. The culms are generally hollow with walls of varying thickness according to the species. The number of new culms produced varies distinctly with the type of species and the size and vigor of the clump. Bamboos require 8 to 36 degree Celsius and minimum of 100 cm of rainfall in its area for good growth.
Introduction to Bamboo -- Bamboo

Some of the popular species are Bambusa arundinacea, Bambus tulda, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus strictus,etc.

How Strong is the Bamboo?

Bamboo is harder than the traditional hard woods. In fact, it is harder by 2-3 times than most of hardwoods. The tensile strength of bamboo cable is as stronger as or stronger than steel cable of same dimension and it withstands compression better than concrete. The bamboo cables increase its strength when its wet by 20% different than hemp rope that loses 20% strength when wet. Home build up Bamboo have lifespan as long as or longer than any conventional wood framed building after it is properly installed and maintained. Bamboo structure has it history of 200 years in Japan.  

Uses of Bamboos

  • Bamboo is extensively used in place of a timber for variety of application like building houses, making scaffolds, flutes, fence posts, flooring, in developing countries making different fancy furniture products like baskets, handles, chair, tables, frames, foundations, doors and so on.
  • Bamboos' shoots are the portion commonly used as food by many people. The fast-growing shoot of bamboo is soft and are edible to human. The fibrous exterior is removed from the shoot and boiled as raw bamboo contains toxin producing cyanide in the gut.  In Nepal, a locally named product of bamboo 'tama' is very popular among people of both rural and urban area which is used as curry with other vegetables or as pickle.
  • It is also taken as fodder by animals. The leaves are nutritious and palatable. Giant panda of China, Red panda of Nepal, lemurs of Madagascar eat soft bamboo shoots, stems and leaves as their major food source. Elephant as well consume some species of bamboo as its favorite food.
  • The bamboos can be used as a measure for conserving soil and controlling land erosion on the degraded sites. Their shallow and fibrous root system allows for soil conservation.
  • Bamboo is used for purification and regulation of the environment, reduces greenhouse effects as they function as carbon sinks, produce oxygen, produce organic matter and regulate water level in watershed along with soil erosion control.

LGBT Rights in Nepal

Human beings are one of the amazing creatures of this universe. Every Human is unique and different from each other. In terms of behavior, choice, lifestyle, thoughts, there is a diversification among every human. In terms of sexuality, too there is a variation among the patterns of sexual attraction. Generally, it is thought that there are only 2 sexes I.e. male and female. But, there is a large portion of population which doesn't identify themselves as either Male or Female. In this article, we will be discussing about that portion of population that is different from Male and Female. Today, we will be discussing about rarely talked topic, LGBT.
LGBT Rights in Nepal
LGBT Rally

What is LGBT?

It is said that " Sex is biologically constructed whereas Gender is socially constructed ".   When a child is born in a family, it is a assigned as a particular sex according to the biological sex organ present in the body.  However, as the child grows, the child may/ may not feel comfortable with the Gender assigned by the society. Normally, Gender are assigned as either male or female and the behavior of the people emotionally  will also be similar as their assigned Gender. But, in the case of a portion of population,  the gender that was assigned as Male notices himself as a feminine person. He finds himself totally as a female in every aspects like behavior, emotions and feelings. He likes to wear the dress of the female and totally enjoys it. He finds naturally easier to talk with female friends rather than male mates. After reaching to the Teenage, he puts long hair, artificial breast structures, tight shorts and behaves completely as a female. Such persons are called " Transwoman ". Transwoman are the persons who were assigned as man at the birth but they identify themselves as Woman. Similarly, there are also other Trans groups, i.e. Transman. Transman are the persons who were assigned as woman at their birth but they identify themselves as man. Transman and Transwoman, both are commonly called as Transgenders.

What does LGBT?

Many persons assume that, in terms of sexual attraction, there is opposite sexual attraction and the sexual attraction is only between Male and Female. But, as seen in nature there are 100s of species that are attracted to the same sex in unique sexual behaviors. They are called Homosexuals. From the ancient times, Homosexuality is seen in humans too. 
  • It means there are a lot of people who are Female and their sexual attraction is towards Female. They are called " Lesbians ". 
  • Similarly, there are a lot of people who are Male and their sexual attraction is towards Male. They are called " Gay ". 
  • Similarly, there are people that are attracted towards both male and female, they are called " Bisexuals ". 
  • Person born either as a man or woman but identify theemselves as opposite sex are considered as "Transgender".  
  • So, LGBT collectively refers to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgenders.
The presence of these types of behaviors can be cited from ancient religious scriptures to the modern psychological literatures with a lot of controversies. Many people still assume that " Homosexuality is unnatural and it is against the laws of procreation ". They argue that homosexuality is mental disorder. Not strange, World Health Organization (WHO) had also listed homosexuality as a mental disorder. But, with the advancements in the researches, WHO regretfully removed homosexuality from the list of mental disorders in 1992. 

LGBT Status in Nepal

As of report, published by Blue Diamond Society, there are more than 9,00,000 LGBT people living in Nepal. LGBT communities are one of the most suppressed communities in the human society. Influenced by religious orthodox, so called social norms, values and disciplines, many people consider LGBT as abnormal. Transgender people are often considered as a source of joke and are misbehaved with the words like " Chhakka", " Hijra " .They are commonly kicked out of their homes at their early teenage due to their different behavior. In Schools, they are misbehaved and bullied by their friends and teachers and most are restricted from school. Due, to which the education status of Transgenders in developing countries like Nepal is very low which directly affects the Human Development Index (HDI) of the community. Similarly, " Marriage " and " Relationships " are considered as the most important and fundamental aspect. In countries like Nepal, where there are lots of taboos and beliefs considering Marriage, same sex marriage and relationship is not accepted by majority of the parents. Due, to which the emotions of homosexuals are crushed socially. Sadly, there is a high rate of suicide observed among these communities.

LGBT Rights in Nepal

Despite of the hatred and suppression done by the society, there are rays of hopes for the LGBT community. The political change after the People's movement in 2007, legalized homosexuality in Nepal. Similarly, the Constitution of Nepal- 2072 which is considered as one of the most inclusive and progressive constitution of the World has addressed the issues of these community. There are some provisions like the right to have their preferred gender display on their identity cards. Similarly, there is a prohibition on discrimination on any ground including sex or sexual orientation by the State or  by anyone. The substitution of gender-neutral terms for the previous "male", "female", "son", and "daughter" is granted. Also, The right of access to state process and public services for gender and sexual minorities

How to deliver your research paper?

Delivering presentation at academic seminar is also one of the important part of the research. However, we have to be careful about couple of things to make the presentation seem better. To be an effective presenter, one should be energetic, enthusiastic and passionate about it.
How to deliver your research paper?

How to deliever research paper effectively?

  1. Preparation and practice is the key to delivering the effective presentation.Prepare delivering your presentation content beforehand in front of friends, family to make the final one run smooth.
  2. Presentation software are another key aspect. Almost every individual uses this type of software packages nowadays. Choosing the right tools available for right information is essential. 
  3.  The content should be slightly different than the journal article as it is to be presented before the audience and grab their attention and make them understand. The paper should be structured in a clear, concise and coherent way depicting clear flow of information.
  4. The presentation should be practiced so that it falls within the limit given. Remember, finishing within the allocated time is also the important aspect.
  5. Introduction should be quick and grabbing the attention of the audience at first is important. This can be done by maintaining eye contact with the audiences.
  6. Throughout the presentation the presenter should be confident, assertive maintaining good posture, gestures and  language.
  7. The voice should also be maintained with volume enough to reach the audience and clear enough to understanding with varying pace and pitch as required. Pause after finishing some lines and whenever required makes the articulation great rather than mere continuous flow of sentences. Use transitions while moving from one slide to the other.
  8. There will be question and answer session after finishing delivering the paper. Answer the questions asked at the end of the session politely and thank for any suggestion given.

These were few of the general things that has to be kept in mind in delivering a effective academic presentation. Hope this helps!

Scientific and Local Name of Tree Species found in Nepal

Nepal is rich in biodiversity. Nepal has various plants, animal and ecological variations. The different ecological region like tropical zone, sub-tropical zone, temperate zone, sub-alpine and alpine helps to grows up different vegetation types in respective ecological zone. The altitude from low plain warmer region to Cold high mountain with temperate region neither hot nor cold temperature variation gives rise to various types of vegetations and tree species. Some of the major tree species of Nepal are listed below in the tabular form. The tabular form includes name of tree species in widely and standard naming system that is binomial nomenclature and the popular name in Nepal. It involves the genus name, and the specific name for naming an organism with the help of two names.
Scientific and Local Name of Tree Species found in Nepal-- Tree species
Tree species of Nepal

Scientific name and Nepali name of Tree Species of Nepal

Scientific Name        
Nepali Name
Acacia catechu
Acacia nilotica
Atrocarpus heterophyllus
Adina cordifolia
Aegle marmelos
Aesendra butyraceae
Agave spps.
Alnus nepalensis
Alstonia scholaris
Annona reticulata
Annona squamosal
Anogeisus latifolia
Anthocephalus chinesis
Areca catechu
Artocarpus lakoocha
Arundinaria falcata
Azadirachta indica
Bauhinia vahlii
Bauhinia variegate
Berberis aristata
Bombax ceiba
Caesalpina bonduc
Carica papaya
Albizia lebbeck
Kalo siris
Albizia procera
Seto siris
Choerospondias axillaris
Cinnamomum camphora
Cinnamomum tamala
Coccinea grandis
Coccus nulifera
Dalbergia latifolia
Daphne bholua
Delonix regia
Dendrocalamu spps.
Dillenia pentagyna
Tectona grandis
Shorea robusta
Dalbergia sissoo
Fraxinus floribunda
Jatropa curcus
Castanopsis indica
Dhale katus
Castanopsis hystrix
Patle katus
Castanopsis tribuloides
Musure katus
Acer oblongum
Brassaiopsis hainla
Seto chuletro
Brassaiopsis glomerulata
Kalo chuletro
Bridelia retusa
Buddleja asiatica
Cordia dichotoma
Daphniphyllum himalense
Exbucklandia populnea
Ilex excelsa
Juglans regia
Lannea coromandelica
Leucosceptrum canum
Michelia champaca
Pinus roxburghii
Rani salla
Pinus wallichiana
Gobre salla
Prunus cerasoids
Salix babylonica
Saurauria napaulensis
Schima wallichi
Abies pindrow
Gobre salla
Abies spectabilis
Juniperus indica

How to write a great research paper?

A research paper is one of the form of the academic writing which has information collected on a particular topic through the certain process of intensive research and its analysis and findings are interpreted. The research documents is so designed to provide proofs, evidence and help to reach out a conclusion. The research paper includes details about research title, author details, abstract, problem statements, limitations of study, discuss about research methodology, data analysis and conclusion & finding. with recommendation. Here are few points that makes a research paper look great!
How to write a great research paper?-- Process
Research Paper preparation process

Way to write a great Research paper

  1. Choose the topic that interest you, challenge you or are curious about but sometimes the availability of funding sources and assistance can determine your research topic.
  2. Find the related information about the subject of interest on the internet or other offline sources like journals, books, newspapers, periodicals, magazines. While searching for the information on the internet depend on the reliable sources like .gov sites, .edu sites, google scholar, research gate and be careful about some of the .com sites which may contain product promotion only while others may have great content.
  3. Organize the outline of the research paper carefully. It may be both formal and informal. Generally, students are required to submit formal outlines of their research paper. Good outline is the most important step in making a paper look great.
  4. Organize every information you collected from the both primary and secondary sources and analyze your data being able to clearly articulate the research outcomes and findings.
  5. Information which is not relevant to the topic of research should be avoided.
  6. Citing the information wherever necessary is the another most important aspect of the good paper writing. Words should be written as far as possible in your own way to avoid plagiarism.
  7. Frequent check and recheck is very essential during the research paper writing process to make sure that the topic, objective, research problem, analysis are aligned or related and if any grammatical errors present.

The research paper is an academic writing done in various professional fields. This paper gives audience the opporunity to think about some issues seriously. The research should present researcher's own opinion and thinking backed up by other's ideas and information. 

How to carry out data analysis?

Data analysis is one of the major parts of research. However, sometimes it cannot run smoothly if we don’t look at the some of the basic aspects. There are some tips that can help making analysis easy to understand and run smoothly as per the requirement of the research. Let's have a look upon them.
How to carry out data analysis?--Data analysis diagram
Data Analysis process

The effective ways to carry out Data Analysis

  1. The descriptive statistics should be taken into consideration rather than going for complex statistical analysis as it can be   easily interpretable and easy to understand and give more insights to our research in easy way.
  2. The data you collected from different primary and secondary sources using different data collection techniques should be summarized or cut-off to make it meaningful or keep only useful data for addressing research objectives.
  3. While performing analysis always keep the back up of your data to avoid loss.
  4. Before performing the data analysis always look up for the best method by consulting with research advisor, seniors or friends or any other consultant to save time and unproductive effort.
  5. Don’t try to support the result that doesn’t align to the research hypothesis or objectives of the research as it is of no use.
  6. Use the syntax of different data analysis software to detect the repetitive analysis to decrease the amount of errors.
  7. Form the clear and specific understanding about your research objectives so that the analysis goes as intended.
  8. The research questions should be made measurable, clear and concise so that the data analysis part goes easily and effectively. You should focus your data analysis on how to better answer the research question.
  9. Setting up clear measurement priorities by deciding what type of data to measure? how to measure it?  can also help the data analysis process.
  10. Data analysis tools and software on the other hand are very useful and utilizing it to the fullest extent possible requires the deeper knowledge of using appropriate tools and techniques.

If we can follow the above-mentioned tips then we can easily handle the data analysis part of the research and complete it easily!

How to carryout a good questionnaire survey?

 A questionnaire is a technique of collecting information which contains a list of questions for collecting data where respondents answers the questions. It is a research instrument and for effectively developing a questionnaire one should spend significant time and make fruitful effort, so that the appropriate information can be gathered and research problem can be answered easily.
Questionnaire Survey

Things to know how to prepare a good questionnaire conduct a good questionnaire survey.

  1. First, come up with the answers of what kind of information it is that we want to collect with the questionnaire? and Is the questionnaire method the best way that helps collecting the information?
  2. After this choose the type of question that we intend to deploy to gather the required information like the dichotomous question (YES/NO), open ended questions allowing respondents to express their own words to the question, close ended questions allowing no further option than stated to the respondents and semi-structured questions having both the open and closed ended questions. 
  3. Develop the questions required for your questionnaire that are clear, direct, simple and short which can be easily understood by both the interviewer and interviewee and should avoid technical jargons. Put the important questions first and ask only one question at a time.
  4. Make your questionnaire as short as possible and include the questions that are directly useful to the interest of the research question. Don’t repeat the same question again.
  5. Determine the targeted groups of respondents for your questionnaire appropriately.
  6. Give your introduction and purpose and goal of your questionnaire survey as people hesitate to answer without knowing anything about the researcher and its purpose and reveal the confidentiality of the information which is important.
  7. Give appropriate choices relating to the expected answers. Also provide spaces for their opinion as well as an alternative option.
  8. The questionnaire is choose in the way that it satisfy both surveyor queries and respondent opinion. The questionnaire should be easy so that both interviewers and respondents would get bored to complete it.

Questionnaire is like written interview which guide to collect information with more focus in a related topic escaping unnecessary discussion. Well designed questionnaire would help to interpret and make analysis task easier, quicker and relevant.